The eighteenth century

The Eighteenth-Century India emerged as a politically chaotic and economically crisis-prone period. A different approach was adopted by scholars from the late 1950s, those who largely conformity with the Marxist framework began to provide explanations of Mughal decline in materialist terms.

The eighteenth century. The eighteenth century in India was marked by two critical transitions that altered the power structure and ushered in significant social and economic changes. The first was the transition from the Mughal Empire to regional political orders in the first half of the century. The second was the political, social, and economic transition.The East India …

Developments in 19th-century Europe are bounded by two great events. The French Revolution broke out in 1789, and its effects reverberated throughout much of Europe for many decades. World War I began in 1914. Its inception resulted from many trends in European society, culture, and diplomacy during the late 19th century.

eighteenth century (and so much less apt when applied to the seventeenth or nineteenth century), it can be used as an alternative to the adjective 'eighteenth-century' or, slightly less vacuously, as a way to indicate matters pertaining to a varyingly defined elite. Is politeness, then, anything more than a convenient way25.2 The Eighteenth Century : Salient Features 25.3 The 18th Century Debate 25.4 The Mughal Empire, Its Decline and the Genesis of the Eighteenth Century 25.5 The Process of Regionalization 25.6 How ‘Mughal’ were these Regimes? 25.7 The Economy of the Eighteenth Century 25.8 The Indian Economy in the Late Eighteenth Century: The …Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Identify the crucial demographic trends that worked together to reconfigure North America's black population in the eighteenth century. (Check all that apply.), Identify a characteristic of slave society in New England in the eighteenth century., Identify a characteristic of …Eighteenth Century Collections Online contains over 180,000 titles (200,000 volumes) and more than 32 million pages, making ECCO the premier and irreplaceable resource for eighteenth-century research. As well as titles from the regions stated above, material printed is included from elsewhere which contains significant text in English, Welsh ...Following the Succession Wars of the early eighteenth-century, political economists across Italy discussed a range of possible reforms. Among the issues drawing most attention was the complicated ...This gradually decreased in the 18th century, as L EHMBERG AND Heyck note in The People of the British Isles: 1688 – 1870, “The reasonableness and tolerance advocated in late seventeenth- and early eighteenth-century thought mitigated some of the harsh intensity of the Puritan-style family and led to more companionable relations between ...Netherlands - Enlightenment, Trade, Reforms: Once the Dutch fleet had declined, Dutch mercantile interests became largely dependent on English goodwill, yet the rulers were more concerned with reducing the monumental debt that weighed heavily upon the country. During the 18th century, Dutch trade and shipping were able to maintain the level of activity reached at the end of the 17th century ...

The 18th century. To call the 18th century the Age of Reason is to seize on a useful half-truth but to cause confusion in the general picture, because the primacy of reason had also been a mark of certain periods of the previous age. It is more accurate to say that the 18th century was marked by two main impulses: reason and passion.Clothing and shoes served as necessary survival tools in the 18 th century as well as powerful ways to communicate status, ideas, and a person's role in society. Fashion was a very important way that people expressed their ideas and economic status during the 18th century.Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Olaudah Equiano's life underscored what eighteenth-century theme?, What area was the major producer of revenue for the British crown in the eighteenth century?, What was the significance of sugar, rice, coffee, and tobacco in the eighteenth century? and more.Eighteenth Century Collections Online contains over 180,000 titles (200,000 volumes) and more than 32 million pages, making ECCO the premier and irreplaceable resource for eighteenth-century research. As well as titles from the regions stated above, material printed is included from elsewhere which contains significant text in English, Welsh ...During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming. This question is based on Parallelism.Eighteenth-Century Headwear The hairstyles and headwear worn by women changed dramatically and rather frequently during the eighteenth century. The men's styles, on the other hand, gradually became simpler as the century progressed. Shifting fashions had developed deep roots in Western culture by the end of the eighteenth century, and both men and women had become accustomed to yearly, if not ...The eighteenth century witnessed the birth of an Anglo-American "consumer society". Though the Industrial Revolution was still far in the future, the pace of the British economy picked up dramatically after 1690. Small manufacturing concerns scattered throughout Eng-land began turning out huge quantities of consumer goods - cloth,

World War II was to shatter most longing for (and imitation of) a mythical time. There was an entire 20th-century movement in the non-visual arts which was also called Neoclassicism. It encompassed at least music, philosophy and literature. It was between the end of World War I and the end of World War II.Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like brush, fiber, false and more.The Restoration and 18th century was a time of standardization of the English language. During the Elizabethan Age, Shakespeare created new words and new expressions, and spelling was erratic. During the early 17th century, the metaphysical poets created elaborate, unusual metaphors.Tracy Rutler's Queering the Enlightenment: Kinship and Gender in Eighteenth-Century French Literature (Oxford University Studies in the Enlightenment, Liverpool UP, 2021) …a pilgrimage of aristocrats, wealthy and diplomatic persons to tour the important area of Europe to obtain the knowledge and classical culture. Herculaneum and Pompeii. towns destroyed by Mt. vesuvius in 79AD. They were perfectly preserved and being excavated in 1738 and 1748.The Eighteenth Century ... Volume II of the Oxford History of the British Empire examines the history of British worldwide expansion from the Glorious Revolution ...

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It draws together research expertise across the Faculty in the long eighteenth century in the Schools of English, History, Languages, Literatures and Performing ...European intellectual life in the eighteenth century was marked by the emergence of a. anti-Semitism and sharper persecution of minorities. b. secularization and a search to find the natural laws governing human life. c. sophism and the mockery of past traditions. d. monastic schools and medieval modes of training religious thinkers. e.The fashion at the beginning of the second half of the 18th century was all about silk materials decorated with bows, strongly influenced by Rococo. Later in the period, fashion became inspired by what Marie Antoinette wore. Élisabeth Vigée Le Brun, Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France, 1783, Palace of Versailles, Versailles, France.The Eighteenth Century: Theory and Interpretation fosters theoretical and interpretive research on all aspects of Western culture from 1660 to 1830. The editors ...Geneva, Britain, and France in the Eighteenth Century. by Richard Whatmore. Series: The Lewis Walpole Series in Eighteenth-Century Culture and History. 416 Pages, 6.12 x 9.25 x 1.31 in. Hardcover; 9780300175578; Published: Tuesday, 31 Jul 2012; $75.00. BUY

The Restoration and the 18th Century. King Charles II. The King openly proclaimed his love of parliaments, his devotion to the immemorial constitution of balance and moderation, his Protestant fervor, and his pious hopes for a national church. ~The Longman Anthology of British Literature. Those RULES of old discover'd, not devis'd,The eighteenth century was the great Age of Enlightenment, but also Romanticism. The Augustan or neoclassical poetry of Alexander Pope and others eventually gave way to the Romantic meditations of Wordsworth and Coleridge. Below, we introduce ten of the greatest and most emblematic poems of the eighteenth century.The early-eighteenth-century English East India Company was already set into a pattern that was to last into the nineteenth century. By contemporary standards it was a gigantic organization. Its stock was fixed in 1708 at £3, 200, 000, subscribed by some 3, 000 shareholders, and it borrowed very extensively on bond; £6 million was set as the ...Getting Dressed in the 18th Century Note: The interactive activity featured in this lesson focuses on 18th-century girls' clothing. For more information, including facts about boys' clothing, consult Children's Clothing and A Colonial Child's Clothing: A Glossary of Terms , both available on the website of Colonial Williamsburg , a link from ...Eighteenth-century Egypt had "a form of 'cultural revival' in the making—specifically Islamic origins of modernization long before Napoleon's Egyptian campaign." [3] Napoleon's expedition into Egypt further encouraged "social transformations that harkened back to debates about inner-Islamic reform, but now were also legitimized by referring to the …Author of the three biggest-selling books of the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, Common Sense (1776), Rights of Man (1791) and The Age of Reason (1794), Paine still ranks as the ...When papermaking was first introduced in Europe in the twelfth century, rags were wetted, pressed into balls, and then left to ferment. After this, the rags were macerated in large water-powered stamping mills. [iii] In the eighteenth century, a beating engine, or a Hollander, was used to tear up the material, creating a wet pulp by circulating ...During the eighteenth century, widespread changes in agriculture, known as the agrarian revolution, involving the large-scale introduction of enclosed fields, of new farming techniques and crops, and the substitution of commercial for subsistence farming. This question is based on Parallelism.The continuation of river improvements during the eighteenth century, coupled with the construction of a canal network, gradually removed most of these impediments. By 1724, as a result of improvement, around 1160 miles of English rivers were navigable and by the end of the eighteenth century there were around 2000 miles of navigable waterway.Literature portal. v. t. e. European literature of the 18th century refers to literature (poetry, drama, satire,essay and novels) produced in Europe during this period. The 18th century saw the development of the modern novel as literary genre, in fact many candidates for the first novel in English date from this period, of which Daniel Defoe ...Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Which agricultural product served as the foundation for the South Atlantic System in the eighteenth century?, Which of the following statements describes slaves' lives in the North American colonies in the eighteenth century?, Which of the following was true of slavery in the American colonies in the eighteenth century? and more. 1 of 5 stars 2 of 5 stars 3 of 5 stars 4 of 5 stars 5 of 5 stars. 12. The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman. by. Laurence Sterne. 3.73 avg rating — 21,282 ratings. score: 7,757 , and 82 people voted. Want to Read. saving….

Mar 14, 2021 · The population of London was about 600,000. In the mid 18th century the population of Britain was about 6 1/2 million. In the late 18th century it grew rapidly and by 1801 it was over 9 million. The population of London was almost 1 million. But most towns still had populations of less than 10,000.

But this new way of thinking also brought about significant change on the world stage and Revolution both in the Old World and the New. In this article, learn about 7 major events that happened in the 18th Century (1700s). 1. The War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714) Battle of Ekeren, 1703. Credit: Wikimedia Commons // Public Domain.Read the excerpt from Early Victorian Tea Set. In the eighteenth century Josiah Wedgwood had made some of the most expensive stoneware ceramics - in jasper and basalt - in Britain, but this tea set shows that by the 1840s, when Wedgwood produced it, the company was aiming at a much wider market.Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like brush, fiber, false and more.However, the massive increase in population that in Europe was at first attributed to industrialization starting in the eighteenth century occurred also and at the same period in China, even though there was no comparable industrialization. It is estimated that the Chinese population by 1600 was close to 150 million.The first bookseller seems to have been Hezekiah Usher of Boston, who added books to his general merchandise in about 1647. History of publishing - Printing, Distribution, Revolution: From the mid-16th through the 18th century, there were virtually no technical changes in the methods of book production, but the organization of the trade moved ...Eighteenth-Century Studies Vol. 48, No. 1 THE COMMERCIAL WORLD OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY In a classic essay published in 1987, Ashin Das Gupta, the doyen of Indian Ocean studies, argued that "the relative importance of the European factor grew considerably during the eighteenth century, and it is a characteristic of the centuryThe 18th century. In America in the early years of the 18th century, some writers, such as Cotton Mather, carried on the older traditions.His huge history and biography of Puritan New England, Magnalia Christi Americana, in 1702, and his vigorous Manuductio ad Ministerium, or introduction to the ministry, in 1726, were defenses of ancient Puritan convictions.This is a timeline of the 18th century. 1700s John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. The Battle of Poltava in 1709 turned the Russian Empire into a European power. 1700–1721: Great Northern War between the Russian and Swedish Empires. 1701: Kingdom of Prussia declared under King Frederick I. 1701: Ashanti Empire is formed under Osei Kofi ...

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Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Most of the eighteenth-century population growth in the British colonies in North America was due to, Which of the following is true of the black population in the Chesapeake by the mid-eighteenth century?, Why did many planters consider slave women more valuable than slave men? and more.United Kingdom - 18th-century Britain, 1714–1815: When Georg Ludwig, elector of Hanover, became king of Great Britain on August 1, 1714, the country was in some respects bitterly divided. Fundamentally, however, it was prosperous, cohesive, and already a leading European and imperial power. Abroad, Britain’s involvement in the War of the Spanish Succession had been brought to a ..."The 18th century witnessed the appearance, the acceptance and the glorious pinnacle of waist-hung watches and etuis. These are the superb examples to be seen in the leading museums in the world... Extensive research of 18th century trade cards and writings of the day confirms the total lack of usage of the word chatelaine in the 18th century.An economic divergence between Britain and France began in the second half of the 17th century. Eighteenth century. France was large and rich and experienced a slow economic and demographic recovery in the first decades following the death of Louis XIV in 1715. Birth rates were high and the infant mortality rate was in steady decline.02 Father Junipero Serra dies. 03 Mexico achieves independence from Spain. 04 Father Junipero Serra is elevated to Sainthood by the catholic church. Fill in the blanks to complete the passage about an aspect of British political thinking in the eighteenth century.Eighteenth Century Education. These excerpts from Milcah Martha Moore's textbook reveal the tenets of an eighteenth-century Quaker education. Milcah Martha Moore, Miscellanies, moral and instructive, in prose and verse, collected from various authors, for the use of schools, and improvement of young persons of both sexes (Philadelphia ...The Runaway Slaves in Eighteenth-Century Britain project has created a searchable database of well over eight hundred newspaper advertisements placed by masters and owners seeking the capture and return of enslaved and bound people who had escaped. Many were of African descent, though a small number were from the Indian sub …Save. Get Access. The Eighteenth Century fosters theoretical and interpretive research on all aspects of Western culture, 1660-1800. The editors take special interest in essays that …Stipple engraving, 1789, after a painting by George Romney. [1] Sensibility refers to an acute perception of or responsiveness toward something, such as the emotions of another. This concept emerged in eighteenth-century Britain, and was closely associated with studies of sense perception as the means through which knowledge is gathered. ….

American literature - Colonial, Revolution, Enlightenment: In America in the early years of the 18th century, some writers, such as Cotton Mather, carried on the older traditions. His huge history and biography of Puritan New England, Magnalia Christi Americana, in 1702, and his vigorous Manuductio ad Ministerium, or introduction to the ministry, in 1726, were …European intellectual life in the eighteenth century was marked by the emergence of a. anti-Semitism and sharper persecution of minorities. b. secularization and a search to find the natural laws governing human life. c. sophism and the mockery of past traditions. d. monastic schools and medieval modes of training religious thinkers. e.A Guide to Eighteenth-Century English Vocabulary &C. —A form of etc. Et cetera is Latin for "and other things"; the ampersand stands for the and— Latin et. (The ampersand is an old way of writing et; you can almost make out the e and the t in the italic ampersand:&.) ABIGAIL—Sometimes used for female servants.See also Betty. ACCOMPT—An old spelling for account.The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement in the eighteenth century that emphasized reason and science. The British colonist Benjamin Franklin gained fame on both sides of the Atlantic as a printer, publisher, and scientist. He embodied Enlightenment ideals in the British Atlantic with his scientific experiments and philanthropic endeavors.The long 18th century is a phrase used by many British historians to cover a more natural historical period than the simple use of the standard calendar definition. They expand the century to include larger British and Western European historical movements, with their subsequent "long" 18th century typically running from the Glorious Revolution ...Its reviews are of the same length and quality as their print edition counterparts, and are accessible to everyone. We publish timely reviews covering all aspects of Long-Eighteenth-Century culture including literature, history, fine arts, science, history of ideas, and popular culture. You can browse these in our Essay Reviews section. The 18th century. In America in the early years of the 18th century, some writers, such as Cotton Mather, carried on the older traditions.His huge history and biography of Puritan New England, Magnalia Christi Americana, in 1702, and his vigorous Manuductio ad Ministerium, or introduction to the ministry, in 1726, were defenses of ancient Puritan convictions.This is a timeline of the 18th century. 1700s John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough. The Battle of Poltava in 1709 turned the Russian Empire into a European power. 1700–1721: Great Northern War between the Russian and Swedish Empires. 1701: Kingdom of Prussia declared under King Frederick I. 1701: Ashanti Empire is formed under Osei Kofi ...An eighteenth-century performer hoping to learn how to fashion such expressive lines out of collections of notes on the page might have looked, for instance, to Johann Joachim Quantz's 1752 treatise on flute playing, which offers in-depth tuition on turning physical input into expressive output: 'A proportional opening of the teeth and mouth ... The eighteenth century, The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement in the eighteenth century that emphasized reason and science. The British colonist Benjamin Franklin gained fame on both sides of the Atlantic as a printer, publisher, and scientist. He embodied Enlightenment ideals in the British Atlantic with his scientific experiments and philanthropic endeavors. , The backcountry frontier of colonial Virginia reached westward from the Blue Ridge Mountains to the farthest extent of Virginia settlement in the eighteenth century. By royal charter, the extreme western boundaries of Virginia at this time extended to the Pacific Ocean, but the terms “backcountry” or “back settlements” specifically refer …, Oct 10, 2023 · Call for Papers: British Literature: Restoration and 18th Century at CEA 2024 March 21-23 Atlanta, Georgia The Westin Buckhead Atlanta The College English Association, a gathering of scholar-teachers in English studies, welcomes proposals for presentations on British Literature: Restoration and 18th Century for our 53rd annual conference. , Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like 1. The most important fact about eighteenth-century colonial America is its a. economic underdevelopment. b. shortage of available land. c. phenomenal population growth. d. level of violence., 2. By 1770, the thirteen colonies were a. varied in people and environments. b. as …, Designed to help students better understand the vitally important historical events of 18th century American history, this volume in the acclaimed series presents 10 major events in separate chapters. From the Great Awakening early in the century to Jefferson's Revolution of 1800, each chapter goes beyond the traditional textbook treatment of ..., Geneva, Britain, and France in the Eighteenth Century. by Richard Whatmore. Series: The Lewis Walpole Series in Eighteenth-Century Culture and History. 416 Pages, 6.12 x 9.25 x 1.31 in. Hardcover; 9780300175578; Published: Tuesday, 31 Jul 2012; $75.00. BUY, Chapter3 British population during the 'long' eighteenth century, 1680-1840; Chapter4 Agriculture during the industrial revolution, 1700-1850; Chapter5 Industrialisation and technological change; Chapter6 Money, finance and capital markets; Chapter7 Trade: discovery, mercantilism and technology; Chapter8 Government and the economy, 1688 ..., Clause 1: Leaching, the recovery of copper from the drainage water of mines, as a method of the extraction of minerals, Clause 2: it was well established as early as the eighteenth century, Clause 3: but until about 25 years ago miners did not realize. Clause 4: that bacteria took an active part in the process., About The Eighteenth Century. The Eighteenth Century: Theory and Interpretation fosters theoretical and interpretive research on all aspects of Western culture from 1660 to 1830. The editors take special interest in …, Eighteenth-century writing also poses a fairly different orthography[the system of spelling and letters] than does present-day English. The unusual spelling construction in conjunction with–what we would call–“random” word capitalization is a distraction to those struggling through an eighteenth-century work like Joseph Andrews , for ... , The century closed with the deaths of visionaries such as Mary Wollstonecraft and Catherine the Great, and the births of a new breed of female writers and scholars. The political and social changes that took place in the eighteenth century paved the way for these future writers and activists to advance the cause of women's rights., "The 18th century witnessed the appearance, the acceptance and the glorious pinnacle of waist-hung watches and etuis. These are the superb examples to be seen in the leading museums in the world... Extensive research of 18th century trade cards and writings of the day confirms the total lack of usage of the word chatelaine in the 18th century., The eighteenth century was the great Age of Enlightenment, but also Romanticism. The Augustan or neoclassical poetry of Alexander Pope and others eventually gave way to the Romantic meditations of Wordsworth and Coleridge. Below, we introduce ten of the greatest and most emblematic poems of the eighteenth century., The eighteenth century was a century of contrasts - refined aristocratic fashion and brutal slavery and revolution. It was marked by violent wars, and Americans rightly thought of continental Europe as a perpetual bloodbath. On the other hand, the death tallies of the eighteenth century are minimal compared to those of the twentieth century ..., Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like In 18th century America. the main sources of population growth and diversity were a. Irish and Italian immigrants b. immigration and natural increase c. Russian and English immigrants d. Eastern European and palatine German immigrants, Compared with the poor in England, the least wealthy 18th century New Englanders a. were ..., Tracy Rutler's Queering the Enlightenment: Kinship and Gender in Eighteenth-Century French Literature (Oxford University Studies in the Enlightenment, Liverpool UP, 2021) …, Eighteenth Century writers such as Jonathon Swift and Alexander Pope often took the idea of the epic and combined it with satire to create a Mock-Epic. The classic epics of Ancient Greece and Rome such as Homer’s The Illiad and Virgil’s The Aenid were characterized by the presence of a hero of national importance, a serious and continuously elevated tone, …, The century closed with the deaths of visionaries such as Mary Wollstonecraft and Catherine the Great, and the births of a new breed of female writers and scholars. The political and social changes that took place in the eighteenth century paved the way for these future writers and activists to advance the cause of women's rights., Eighteenth-Century Connections. This new Elements series builds on the best recent historical work in eighteenth-century studies by focusing on the connections that define …, From the 18th century onward, Kew had the most important botanical garden in Europe after Paris and Versailles. / Photo by Iris Lauterbach Through his work on Chinese architecture, art and gardens, Chambers made important contributions to the discussion about the origin and forms of the landscape garden . 32 In 1757, he published his …, An engaging animated summary of medical progress in the 18th century. Suitable for Key stage 3, GCSE and National 4., How to Read 18 th Century British-American Writing: 18 th Century Reading and Writing Some Characteristics of 18 th Century British-American Handwriting Steps in Deciphering Handwritten Documents Excerpts from The American Young Man’s Best Companion. 18 th Century Reading and Writing. Historians soon learn not to assume that people in the …, Whether refugees from war (the Germans, for example) or victims of persecution or economic conditions in their homelands (the Irish and Scotch‐Irish), the new arrivals added to the ethnic and religious mosaic of eighteenth‐century America. The largest ethnic group to arrive—the African slaves—came in chains. The expansion of slavery. At ..., Paris in the 18th century was the second-largest city in Europe, after London, with a population of about 600,000 people. The century saw the construction of Place Vendôme , the Place de la Concorde , the Champs-Élysées , the church of Les Invalides , and the Panthéon , and the founding of the Louvre Museum . , The continuation of river improvements during the eighteenth century, coupled with the construction of a canal network, gradually removed most of these impediments. By 1724, as a result of improvement, around 1160 miles of English rivers were navigable and by the end of the eighteenth century there were around 2000 miles of navigable waterway., Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like In 18th century America. the main sources of population growth and diversity were a. Irish and Italian immigrants b. immigration and natural increase c. Russian and English immigrants d. Eastern European and palatine German immigrants, Compared with the poor in England, the least wealthy 18th century New Englanders a. were ..., Elaborate. INTRODUCTION: The eighteenth century in Indian history marks it relevance by two crucial developments-the decline of Mughal Empire and the expansion of British Empire, which changed the social, economic and political structure. An extensive study of these two phases has resulted in diverging views., The Age of Enlightenment or the Enlightenment, [note 2] also known as the Age of Reason, was an intellectual and philosophical movement that occurred in Europe, especially Western Europe, in the 17th and 18th centuries, with global influences and effects. [2] [3] The Enlightenment included a range of ideas centered on the value of human ... , Eighteenth century psychiatry and medicine were preoccupied with various nosologies or classificatory schemes of medicine. Kant's classification of mental diseases was based on different principles from those of his contemporary nosologists such as Boissier d e Sauvages, Linnaeus, Pinel, and Sydenham in the seventeenth century. ..., Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Eighteenth-century colonial America was characterized by a rapidly growing, diverse population. Identify the two major sources of this growth and diversity and the major ethnic and racial groups that contributed to this diversity. Explain the way in which this population shift changed the demographic profile of the American ... , Eighteenth century psychiatry and medicine were preoccupied with various nosologies or classificatory schemes of medicine. Kant's classification of mental diseases was based on different principles from those of his contemporary nosologists such as Boissier d e Sauvages, Linnaeus, Pinel, and Sydenham in the seventeenth century. ..., An eighteenth-century performer hoping to learn how to fashion such expressive lines out of collections of notes on the page might have looked, for instance, to Johann Joachim Quantz's 1752 treatise on flute playing, which offers in-depth tuition on turning physical input into expressive output: 'A proportional opening of the teeth and mouth ..., The Eighteenth Century: Theory and Interpretation fosters theoretical and interpretive research on all aspects of Western culture from 1660 to 1830. The editors ...