Noun classes in swahili

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and the object noun or just one of them. Sentence Formation Mifano: 1. Kiti kilichonunuliwa na mama kilipendeza. [The chair that was bought by mom was very attractive.] Viti vilivyonunuliwa na mama vilipendeza sana. [The chairs that were bought by mom were very attractive.] 2.Pahali pa Zak palipendeza. [Zak’s place is attractive.]

In several other Bantu languages, such as Swahili, locative phrases have the ability to function as a subject, in agreement with one of the three locative noun classes (see Marten 2013). The ...2. Noun classification in Swahili. 2.1 Outline of the Swahili noun class system. 2.2 Earlier treatments of the noun classes. 3. Methodology. 3.1 The noun database. 3.2 Investigation of noun classes in discourse. 4. Preliminary results: analysis of classes 3, 7, 5, 9, and 11/14 . 4.1 Class 3. 4.2 Class 7. 4.3 Classes 5 and 9. 4.4 Class 11/14. The noun classes are the most important aspect of the Swahili language, as they affect everything: possessives, adjectives, demonstrativ es, verbs, etc. b) Moods2. Noun classification in Swahili. 2.1 Outline of the Swahili noun class system. 2.2 Earlier treatments of the noun classes. 3. Methodology. 3.1 The noun database. 3.2 Investigation of noun classes in discourse. 4. Preliminary results: analysis of classes 3, 7, 5, 9, and 11/14 . 4.1 Class 3. 4.2 Class 7. 4.3 Classes 5 and 9. 4.4 Class 11/14.his chapter will focus on two more noun classes in the Swahili noun class system namely the PA- Class and KU- class. In addition, the subject prefix agreement for all Swahili noun classes will be taught. Section A: The PA- (Mahali Class) Although this noun class contains only one noun i.e. mahali which means “location(s),” it is by far the ...Noun classes are very frustrating when you begin learning Swahili, partly because the whole concept is so different from anything we have in English, and partly because it takes time to learn the rules of each class. You can’t tell what class a noun belongs to if you only know the singular of the noun (although sometimes you can guess), but ...Noun . kiti. chair; Nupe Etymology . Cognates include Yoruba òkìtì. Pronunciation . IPA : /kì.tì/ Noun . kìtì (plural kìtìzhì) heap; somersault Synonym: kángi; Serbo-Croatian Noun . kiti (Cyrillic spelling кити) dative / locative singular of kita; Swahili kiti PronunciationGender and Noun Classes: Swahili has a system of noun classes indicated by prefixes that categorize nouns into different groups. There are 18 noun classes in total, each marked by a specific prefix, which affects agreement with adjectives, pronouns, and verbs. Simplicity and Efficiency: Swahili has a relatively simple grammar compared to some …

Key features include: Twenty five language notes covering key topics such as: personal pronouns; the Swahili noun class system; special class combinations; the imperative, the subjunctive, and the conditional moods; the use of comparatives; the use of monosyllabic verbs; the passive form and various other forms of verb extensions; the relative ...Feb 8, 2020 · This is all to do with noun classes. Check out our Swahili noun classes cheat sheet if you’re interested in that. Sounding cool: “Shwari, wazee!” If you see a group of young people (max 30 years old), you can try your hand with “Shwari!” Or if you’re really game, “Shwari, wazee!”. This sounds like “What’s up guys!” This book is intended for university students and anyone interested in learning Standard Swahili grammar as spoken in the East African Community of Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. The most comprehensive grammar book currently available, some of the concepts covered in this book are greetings, numerals, telling the time, the Noun …Noun Classes in Swahili ; Tjerk Bilingual Pentaglot Groupie Belgium Joined 6348 days ago 54 posts - 59 votes. Speaks: Dutch*, Flemish*, English, ...Apr 18, 2023 · Image by Antony Trivet from Pixabay. This post is part of a series on Swahili noun classes. For an overview, see this post.To learn about each noun class in depth, check out these posts: The A-Wa Class, the Ki-Vi Class, the Li-Ya Class, the U-I Class, the I-I Class, the U-Zi Class, the I-Zi Class, the Ya-Ya Class, the Ku-Ku Class, the PaKuMu-PoKoMo Class. Swahili’s grammar is quite hard if you want to speak it correctly. Some people never learn it well, but we don’t take that path. There are two things that make it hard: noun classes and verb forms. Noun classes: This is the hardest part. Essentially, it means that Swahili is made up of 18 genders.Swahili Adjectives # All Swahili nouns are categorized into specific groups called noun classes. Each noun class has both the singular and plural form. The noun class for animate beings belongs to the M/WA noun class(es). M indicates singular while WA indicates the plural form. These markers are used to mark the adjectives also. The verbs …Swahili, or Kiswahili, belongs to the larger Benue-Congo branch of the Niger-Congo language family. The name comes from the plural of the Arabic word sawāhil ‘coast’. ‘Ki-‘ is a prefix attached to nouns of the noun class that includes languages. Swahili is spoken in East Africa by different people along the coast from Somalia to ...

Learn about "M/Mi class nouns" and learn lots of other Swahili lessons online, and apply your new knowledge in our online exercises.This is all to do with noun classes. Check out our Swahili noun classes cheat sheet if you’re interested in that. Sounding cool: “Shwari, wazee!” If you see a group of young people (max 30 years old), you can try your hand with “Shwari!” Or if you’re really game, “Shwari, wazee!”. This sounds like “What’s up guys!”2. Noun classification in Swahili. 2.1 Outline of the Swahili noun class system. 2.2 Earlier treatments of the noun classes. 3. Methodology. 3.1 The noun database. 3.2 Investigation of noun classes in discourse. 4. Preliminary results: analysis of classes 3, 7, 5, 9, and 11/14 . 4.1 Class 3. 4.2 Class 7. 4.3 Classes 5 and 9. 4.4 Class 11/14. The Bantu languages, like Swahili and Zulu, do this. For instance, in Zulu, umuntu "a person" is distinguished from ubuntu "humanity" by the different prefix (ntu is the root for person). Similarly, in Swahili, attaching different prefixes to the root toto can give you the words for "child", "children", and "childhood" (mtoto, watoto, and utoto, respectively.). A …

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This post is part of a series on Swahili noun classes. For an overview, see this post. To learn about each noun class in depth, check out these posts: The A-Wa Class, the Ki-Vi Class, the Li-Ya Class, the U-I Class, the I-I Class, the U-Zi Class, the I-Zi Class, the Ya-Ya Class, the Ku-Ku Class, the PaKuMu-PoKoMo Class. Overview. The …Swahili approximate extension. List of tables and figures . Acknowledgements . Abbreviations and conventional signs . INTRODUCTORY REMARKS . 1. Language dictionary as a learning tool . 2. Swahili basic sounds . 3. Swahili noun classes . 4. Swahili adjectives and numerals . 5. Noun class shift and the notions "abstractness" …Swahili nouns are grouped into noun classes based on the prefix they have, with each class having a prescribed number. For example, the nouns wasichana "girls" and wasimamizi "overseers" belong to class 2, characterised by the prefix wa- , whereas kifuniko "lid, cover" and kisukari "diabetes" belong to class 7, characterised by the prefix ki- . In this lesson, we will explore the different noun cases in Swahili. Noun cases are an important aspect of Swahili grammar as they indicate the function and relationship of nouns within a sentence. Understanding noun cases is crucial for constructing accurate and meaningful sentences in Swahili. ... Nouns in the accusative case are marked with the …2. Noun classification in Swahili. 2.1 Outline of the Swahili noun class system. 2.2 Earlier treatments of the noun classes. 3. Methodology. 3.1 The noun database. 3.2 Investigation of noun classes in discourse. 4. Preliminary results: analysis of classes 3, 7, 5, 9, and 11/14 . 4.1 Class 3. 4.2 Class 7. 4.3 Classes 5 and 9. 4.4 Class 11/14.Negation within Noun Classes NGELI [noun class] Verb Prefix Negation Marker Example Sentence Negation M A ha- Mtoto analala. Mtoto halali. WA WA hawa- Watoto wanalala. Watoto hawalali. KI KI haki- Kiti kilianguka. Kiti hakikuanguka. VI VI havi- Viti vilianguka. Viti havikuanguka. M U hau- Mguu unauma. Mguu haumi. MI I hai- Miguu inauma. Miguu …

The class is often referred to as Ø-Ø or class 9 & 10 nouns (to be discussed later). However, as it will become evident later, nouns like baba , mama , dada , and other nouns referring to animals behave like the nouns designated class 1 & 2 and not like nouns in class 9 & 10 in which they are often listed in different grammars of Kiswahili.This book is intended for university students and anyone interested in learning Standard Swahili grammar as spoken in the East African Community of Tanzania, Kenya and Uganda. The most comprehensive grammar book currently available, some of the concepts covered in this book are greetings, numerals, telling the time, the Noun Class system ... Swahili nouns classes In general, nouns are grouped into several grammatical classes, depending on the prefix that accompanies the word, and the meaning that attaches to it. For example, a noun in the first class is formed with the prefix m- before a consonant and mw- before a vowel.2.1. Outline of the Swahili noun class system. Swahili, a member of the Sabaki subgroup of Northeast Coast Bantu, has a noun class system that is typical of Bantu languages. All nouns are divided into 11 classes. The class of a noun is signalled by (a) a pair of prefixes attached to the nominal stem, one for singular, one for plural;To learn about each noun class in depth, check out these posts: The A-Wa Class, the Ki-Vi Class, the Li-Ya Class, the U-I Class, the I-I Class, the U-Zi Class, the I-Zi Class, the Ya-Ya Class, the Ku-Ku Class, the PaKuMu-PoKoMo Class. Overview of the A-Wa Class The A-Wa noun class includes all animate nouns, people or animals, for example:The noun class system. The noun class system is a somewhat diabolical concept for non-Bantu speakers. It is like having 10-20 grammatical genders. The “class” of each noun dictates how it behaves …Viambishi vary with words associated with different classes of nouns. Different noun classes go with different sets of viambishi. Noun classification itself is not very straight forward in Swahili. There are various ways that Swahili nouns have been classified. Generally the classes are determined by the way the nouns are spoken in singular and ...Swahili Noun Classes. Swahili has sixteen classes of nouns which are distinguished by prefixes and can be broken into singular and plural pairs. The nouns in most of the classes have some semantic identifications e.g. nouns in classes 1 and 2 are living things while nouns in classes 7 and 8 refer to things. Exercises. 1. What is Noun …This is all to do with noun classes. Check out our Swahili noun classes cheat sheet if you’re interested in that. Sounding cool: “Shwari, wazee!” If you see a group of young people (max 30 years old), you can try your hand with “Shwari!” Or if you’re really game, “Shwari, wazee!”. This sounds like “What’s up guys!”

Katie Alcock. 2000. Abstract Grammatical priming was investigated in Kiswahili, which has a complicated grammatical noun class system (a system like grammatical gender), with up to 15 noun classes that have obligatory agreements on adjectives, verbs, pronouns and other parts of speech. Subjects heard a grammatically agreeing (concordant), non ...

Yes. But, most of the time loan words will go into 9/10 (N/N). So if you have a doubt about which class it should be, choose that one. In Kenya, many speakers put all nouns into this class, even ones that are in other classes in “Standard Swahili.” With Bantu nouns, you can predict the noun from the prefix.This is usually the case for all noun classes except class (1) or the m- class that includes singular nouns of humans. Although in English you can conceptualize a whole person, it will sound strange to a native speaker of Swahili if you say mtu yote because a person is considered whole and not made up of single pieces.In phase I (almost completed), a database is being compiled of all nouns listed in the Standard Swahili-English Dictionary (Johnson 1939, henceforth SSED), using a commercial database program, DBase IV. Phase II of the project will involve investigation of contemporary usage of the noun class system in connected discourse.In this lesson you will learn NOUNS IN CLASSES 9 & 10 in details. DON'T FORGET TO SUBSCRIBE FOR MORE SWAHILI LESSONSIn This lesson we will discuss all the NOUN CLASSES [NOUN CLASS 1-10] In details as requested by 4 of my ardent subscribers and viewers in the comment sectio...Noun [ edit] basi ( plural basi-basi, first-person possessive basi ku, second-person possessive basi mu, third-person possessive basi nya ) dish, plate . Synonym: pinggan.2. Noun classification in Swahili. 2.1 Outline of the Swahili noun class system. 2.2 Earlier treatments of the noun classes. 3. Methodology. 3.1 The noun database. 3.2 Investigation of noun classes in discourse. 4. Preliminary results: analysis of classes 3, 7, 5, 9, and 11/14 . 4.1 Class 3. 4.2 Class 7. 4.3 Classes 5 and 9. 4.4 Class 11/14.Lesson 9a: Noun Classes M - WA - Swahili EN English Deutsch Français Español Português Italiano Român Nederlands Latina Dansk Svenska Norsk Magyar Bahasa Indonesia Türkçe Suomi Latvian Lithuanian český русский български العربية UnknownSwahili Noun Classes: PA- and KU- and Noun Class Agreement. 93. Section B: KU- Class. In Swahili, the KU- Class is only used with verbs and is used to form.In this lesson you will learn NOUNS IN CLASSES 5, 6, 7 & 8 in details. DON'T FORGET TO SUBSCRIBE FOR MORE SWAHILI LESSONS

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SWAHILI NOUN CLASS SYSTEM[Ngeli za Kiswahili]Noun class in Swahili is a group of nouns with similar grammatical characteristics.Noun classes affect the gramm...The classes 1-11 plus 14 are the most resilient, and even then there are minor reducing tendencies such as merger of cl. 11 lʊ and cl. 14 vʊ. There is also a dialectal merger of cl, 9, 10 in Swahili because you can't tell from the noun for what class ratili is in (again, phonological merger of the distinctive prefixes). Kituba is a good ...Jul 18, 2023 · Swahili Grammar Nouns and Pronouns. As mentioned earlier, Swahili has a complex noun class system, where each noun belongs to a particular class with its own set of prefixes and suffixes. Swahili utilizes a total of 18 noun classes, which speakers indicate through the addition of prefixes and suffixes to the noun. This post is part of a series on Swahili noun classes. For an overview, see this post. To learn about each noun class in depth, check out these posts: The A-Wa Class, the Ki-Vi Class, the Li-Ya Class, the U-I Class, the I-I Class, the U-Zi Class, the I-Zi Class, the Ya-Ya Class, the Ku-Ku Class, the PaKuMu-PoKoMo Class. OverviewOne other very important feature of Swahili grammar is "-a," meaning "of." Each noun class has a version of this word, so it must agree with the word which it is modifying. For instance, "Chuo Kikuu cha Nairobi" means "Main School (University) of Nairobi." The "cha" is a form of "-a" that agrees with "chuo," which is in the 7th noun class.The increase in Swahili vocabulary brought about the need to revise and expand the noun classes. Currently, nouns are classified into 8 noun classes. Listed …The noun classes are generally marked by a class prefix. Swahili nouns are inflected for gender and number by a characteristically Bantu prefix system (Vitale, 1981). Gender is grammatical and affixes mark a noun for membership in a noun class. These are, for the most part, not definable on semantic grounds. There is a certain amount of discrepancy …Every noun in Swahili is placed in a class with a prefix appropriate to that class and with its plural, form a class pair. Sometimes the class prefix is absent but the noun remains in that classSwahili Noun Classes: N- and U- 81 10. Swahili Noun Classes: PA- and KU- and Noun Class Agreement 11. Object Infixes 12. Possessives 13. Adjectives 14. Demonstratives 15. Comparatives and Superlatives 16. Question Words, Phrases and Statements 17. The Verbs ‘To Be,’ ‘To Have’ and ‘To Be in a Place’ 18. Numbers 19. More About Swahili Numbers …I introduce the Swahili noun class system and discuss the first four noun classesA-WA (1 AND 2)U-I (3AND 4) Want to start learning? Checkout my main program ...Although the Swahili noun class system is technically grammatical gender, there is a difference from the grammatical gender of European languages; in Swahili, the class assignments of nouns is still largely semantically motivated, whereas the European systems are mostly arbitrary. However, the classes cannot be understood as simplistic ... ….

The traditional description of noun classes in Swahili reflected in Table 1 and summarized above seems straightforward enough at first sight, but in fact it is subject to criticism on three interrelated points: (a) the notion of concord as automatic marking of targets based on syntactic properties of a controller, which treats agreeing elements as if they make no …Swahili (like all Bantu languages) has an extensive noun class system. Many languages have noun classes. For instance, all Romance languages have noun classes masculine and feminine. In Spanish, masculine nouns end in -o and feminine nouns end in -a. (There are of course exceptions to this rule.) Things are a bit more complicated in Swahili ...The noun classes are the most important aspect of the Swahili language, as they affect everything: possessives, adjectives, demonstratives, verbs, etc. b) MoodsJul 18, 2023 · Swahili Grammar Nouns and Pronouns. As mentioned earlier, Swahili has a complex noun class system, where each noun belongs to a particular class with its own set of prefixes and suffixes. Swahili utilizes a total of 18 noun classes, which speakers indicate through the addition of prefixes and suffixes to the noun. Swahili: 18 noun classes (singular and plural are considered separate classes) Tuyuca: Tuyuca has 50–140 noun classes. [better source needed] Sepik languages: Sepik languages all distinguish between at least masculine and feminine genders, but some distinguish three or more genders. References This page was last edited on 19 October …You can't tell what class a noun belongs to if you only know the singular of the noun (although sometimes you can guess), but you can always tell what class a noun belongs to as soon as you know the plural as well as the singular. There are six noun classes: 1. M - WA 2. N 3. M-MI 4. KI-VI 5. JI-MA 6. U A lot depends on the noun class ...In standard Swahili, in areas whereas it has always been natively spoken, I think that noun classes generally follow strict rules of concord that are metaphorically motivated in complex historical ways; however, in urban areas where it is now natively spoken and as an L2 language, nouns generally require mixed concord according to rules of ...Kiswahili is spoken by an estimated 80 million people in East and Central Africa. It is the official language in Tanzania and Kenya, and is also used in Uganda, Somalia, … Noun classes in swahili, Aug 11, 2023 · , August 11, 2023 Swahili Nouns: #1 Easy Guide To Know Noun Classes Swahili, a Bantu language spoken widely across East Africa, is renowned for its rich linguistic structure and cultural significance. , The class is often referred to as Ø-Ø or class 9 & 10 nouns (to be discussed later). However, as it will become evident later, nouns like baba , mama , dada , and other nouns referring to animals behave like the nouns designated class 1 & 2 and not like nouns in class 9 & 10 in which they are often listed in different grammars of Kiswahili. , 2. Noun classification in Swahili. 2.1. Outline of the Swahili noun class system. Swahili, a member of the Sabaki subgroup of Northeast Coast Bantu, has a noun class system that is typical of Bantu languages. All nouns are divided into 11 classes. The class of a noun is signalled by. (a) a pair of prefixes attached to the nominal stem, one for ..., There are 9 noun classes in Kiswahili. Each noun class has both a singular and a plural form, to make 18 total. - WA [A - WA] KI - VI [KI - VI] - MI JI - MA [U - I] [LI - YA] - N [I - ZI] - U [U - ZI] - U KU - KU PA - PA MU - MU [U - U] [KU - KU] [PA - PA] [MU - MU] Lesson 9a: Noun Classes - WA - WA [A - WA], Kiswahili is a Bantu language of the Niger-Congo family and has a typical, complicated Bantu structure. For example, Kiswahili utilizes over 13 noun classes, the equivalence of a romance language having 13 genders. Three full noun classes are devoted to different aspects of space and time. Kiswahili represents an African World view quite ..., Exercise 1, Ngeli. Study the noun classes and do the quiz. What is the plural of mwaka (cl. 3)? What is the singular form of watu (cl. 2)? What are the prefices for the gerund noun class (cl. 15)? What is the plural prefix of a noun beginning with n- (cl. 9)? What do abstractions usually begin with (cl. 14)?, May 20, 2019 · Get our Swahili Learner’s Grammar Guide! — just US $12! With the help of our favourite teacher, we put together this Swahili learner’s grammar guide. Learn Swahili noun classes, verb conjugation, and sentence structure all explained in simple terms with tons of examples. , noun classes, and that therefore, Sabaot-speaking learners struggled with acquiring or producing noun class agreement in L2 Swahili. Similarly, Ntawiyanga (2020) investigated grammatical agreement errors made by Kinyarwanda-spe aking L2 Swahili learners in Muhanga district, Rwanda. Participants were senior high school students., Although the Swahili noun class system is technically grammatical gender, there is a difference from the grammatical gender of European languages; in Swahili, the class assignments of nouns is still largely semantically motivated, whereas the European systems are mostly arbitrary. However, the classes cannot be understood as simplistic ..., Jan 23, 2022 · In standard Swahili, in areas whereas it has always been natively spoken, I think that noun classes generally follow strict rules of concord that are metaphorically motivated in complex historical ways; however, in urban areas where it is now natively spoken and as an L2 language, nouns generally require mixed concord according to rules of ... , In several other Bantu languages, such as Swahili, locative phrases have the ability to function as a subject, in agreement with one of the three locative noun classes (see Marten 2013). The ... , Making Sentences with Matching Noun Classes. In Swahili, adjectives and verbs must match the noun class. For example, a M/Wa noun has the corresponding verb prefix a- (singular) or wa- (plural). The corresponding adjective prefixes are simple: m- and wa-. Therefore, to say “A nice person reads,” you would say: Mtu mzuri anasoma., There is no gender distinction. Proto-Bantu had nineteen classes which in Swahili have been reduced to fifteen. Classes 1 to 8 are paired, the first member of the pair is for singular nouns, the second for plural nouns. Classes 9-10 show no singular-plural contrast. Classes 11-14 have merged. Classes 12-13 have merged with 7-8., Noun classes are very frustrating when you begin learning Swahili, partly because the whole concept is so different from anything we have in English, and partly because it takes time to learn the rules of each class. You can’t tell what class a noun belongs to if you only know the singular of the noun (although sometimes you can guess), but ..., This is the largest noun class in Swahili and there are also few Bantu-origin words found in the noun class. Indeed, it can be observed that Swahili in Kenya, Uganda, and other countries adopt a two-noun class type of Swahili, with M- WA-and N/N classes being the only classes used. The biggest note for this noun class is that there is no distinguishing …, Apr 17, 2023 · One other very important feature of Swahili grammar is "-a," meaning "of." Each noun class has a version of this word, so it must agree with the word which it is modifying. For instance, "Chuo Kikuu cha Nairobi" means "Main School (University) of Nairobi." The "cha" is a form of "-a" that agrees with "chuo," which is in the 7th noun class. , A lot depends on the noun class, including: a) Plurals. So the plural of mtoto is watoto (M-WA), while the plural of kitabu (book) is vitabu (KI-VI). b) Adjectives, including most numbers, e.g. mtoto mzuri (a good child) and kitabu kizuri (a good book). Most of these take the same prefixes as the plural, so they’re not very difficult to ..., Kiswahili, like other Bantu languages, has a noun class system as each noun in the language belongs to a particular class. This paper., Whether you are learning nouns, Swahili noun classes, monosyllabic verbs or a verb root, adjectives, grammar, or just eager to learn languages, the Ling app is an ideal companion to help you learn well. Find out for yourself – download the app from the App Store or Google Play Store today! You can also find 61 other languages on Ling. Get …, The noun classes in Swahili are not arbitrary; they reflect the rich cultural and linguistic heritage of the Swahili people. Many of the noun classes are based on natural gender …, Alisha: The prescribed numbers for this class are 1 and 2, where 1 means singular nouns, and 2 means plural nouns. In this class, you will find nouns for people, animals, insects, birds, fish, and animate objects. For example, Gertrude: mtoto. Alisha: means child, and falls under number 1, whereas. Gertrude: watoto., The words in Kiswahili come from 35% Arabic 64% Bantu 1% Ulaya (europe) o o in the north, r = l sounds in the south, m = n sounds (very hard to distinguish) o Many different noun classes, depending on classification 7 to 22 classes. Some exceptions to the intangible nouns some nouns start with w, so it would be w / n class too Largest class., and the object noun or just one of them. Sentence Formation Mifano: 1. Kiti kilichonunuliwa na mama kilipendeza. [The chair that was bought by mom was very attractive.] Viti vilivyonunuliwa na mama vilipendeza sana. [The chairs that were bought by mom were very attractive.] 2.Pahali pa Zak palipendeza. [Zak’s place is attractive.], Possible outline for grammar sketch. Introduction: language name, where spoken, number of speakers, basic typological information. (Swahili is spoken primarily in Tanzania and Kenya, and is recognized as a national language in both countries. Many different dialects exist; this exercise is based on “Standard Swahili,” as reflected in ..., Noun classes . Swahili nouns are separable into classes, which are roughly analogous to genders in other languages. In Swahili, prefixes mark groups of similar objects: m- marks single human beings (mtoto …, the nominal class system (class gender) and concord for noun agreements [2, 3, 4]. Nominal1 class system [2] is based on morphology (affix to a noun stem) or syntax (agreement affixes to verbs) and the latter has been used in this work. Two noun classes based on the number (singular and plural) forms class gender [5]., C). Negation within Noun Classes NGELI [noun class] Verb Prefix Negation Marker Example Sentence Negation M A ha- Mtoto analala. Mtoto halali. WA WA hawa- Watoto wanalala. Watoto hawalali. KI KI haki- Kiti kilianguka. Kiti hakikuanguka. VI VI havi- Viti vilianguka. Viti havikuanguka. M U hau- Mguu unauma. Mguu haumi., Kannada is the official language of the state of Karnataka, as the native language of 66.46% of its population as of 2011 and is one of the classical languages of India. Urdu is the second largest language, spoken by 10.83% of the population, and is the language of Muslims outside the coastal region., C). Negation within Noun Classes NGELI [noun class] Verb Prefix Negation Marker Example Sentence Negation M A ha- Mtoto analala. Mtoto halali. WA WA hawa- Watoto wanalala. Watoto hawalali. KI KI haki- Kiti kilianguka. Kiti hakikuanguka. VI VI havi- Viti vilianguka. Viti havikuanguka. M U hau- Mguu unauma. Mguu haumi. , Note: Demonstratives in Swahili come in three types.For A-Wa nouns, huyu (this) and hawa (these) refer to nouns that are nearby.Huyo (that) and hao (those) refers to nouns to are further away, and yule (that over there) and wale (those over there) refer to nouns at a distance.. Adjectives. The adjective agreement prefixes for the A-Wa class are m- in the singular and wa- in the plural., Key features include: Twenty five language notes covering key topics such as: personal pronouns; the Swahili noun class system; special class combinations; the imperative, the subjunctive, and the conditional moods; the use of comparatives; the use of monosyllabic verbs; the passive form and various other forms of verb extensions; the …, Swahili Adjectives # All Swahili nouns are categorized into specific groups called noun classes. Each noun class has both the singular and plural form. The noun class for animate beings belongs to the M/WA noun class(es). M indicates singular while WA indicates the plural form. These markers are used to mark the adjectives also. The verbs …, the noun class system. I will then describe the verbal complex, taking each morpheme in turn and describing its form and possible functions. In the second section of the chapter, I will present the syntax of Swahili. 2.1 Basic Facts Swahili is an agglutinative language, with considerable prefixing and suffixing.