Log resistivity

The basic conventional well logs are self-potential, gamma ray, resistivity, velocity, density and neutron porosity which are used to compute porosity, volume of shale, water saturation and permeability of a reservoir (Serra 1984; Rider 2002; Singha and Chatterjee 2017). The shape of well log responses provides other geological information such ...

Log resistivity. Single-point resistance logs display resistance in ohm/inch (Ω/in) with depth, show deflections in the proper relative direction, and correlate directly to resistivity variations regardless of bed thickness. However, because more sophisticated logging methods are increasingly available, SPR logs are not typically used as a stand-alone technique.

Resistivity, along with acoustic and velocity logs, is a very valuable tool in defining lithologic boundaries over intervals of poor core recovery. In a particular example, the decrease in resistivity towards the top of a carbonate unit, coupled with a decrease in velocity, allowed one to interpret this unit as a fining-upward sequence in ...

where ρb, ρma, ρw are, respectively, bulk density, matrix density, and water density. Archie’s equation for calculating water saturation is: (4.148b) where Rw is the resistivity of formation water and Rt the true resistivity of the formation. For cementation factor m =2, Archie’s constant a =1 and the saturation exponent n =2:Resistivity logs measure the electrical resistivity of the formations. Electrical resistivity of a rock is a measure of the degree to which it can imped the flow of an electric current. It is measured in Ohm.m. Resistivity logs measure the formation resistivity at different depths of investigation: shallow, medium, and deep.Resistivity logging is a method of well logging that works by characterizing the rock or sediment in a borehole by measuring its electrical resistivity. Resistivity is a fundamental material property which represents how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current. In these logs, resistivity is measured using four electrical probes to eliminate the resistance of the contact leads. The log must run in holes containing electrically conductive mud or water, i.e., with enough ions present in th…Gambar 16. Grafik respon Log Resistivity (Rider, 2002) 3.5.2 Log Radioaktif . Log radioaktif pada prinsipnya menyelidiki intensitas radioaktif mineral yang mengandung radioaktif dalam suatu lapisan batuan dengan menggunakan suatu radioaktif tertentu. 3.5.2.1 Log Gamma Ray . Prinsip log gamma ray adalah perekaman radioaktif alami bumi.-All resistivity induction logs of tool AO (a), radial resistivity image one in 7 levels starting from AO logs and (b) distribution of resistivity as a function of depth and diameter of invasion (c). Download : Download high-res image (589KB) Download : Download full-size image; Fig. 9.Resistivity logging is the recording,in uncased or recently cased sections of a borehole, of the resistivities (or their reciprocals, the conductivities)of the subsurface …The resistivity log may be modified by the resistivity of the borehole fluidin two different ways: The apparent resistivity of a formation may be different from the trueresistivity of the formation because of the flow of some current through thedrilling mud in the borehole. Therefore the resistivity of the mud is animportant factor.

to measure the true resistivity of geologic for-mations. AIT measurement of conductivity as a function of both depth and distance from the borehole has revolutionized induc-tion logging by increasing the depth of inves-tigation of the measured signal concurrent with reducing the vertical resolution from 4 to 2 ft [1.22 to 0.61 m] and to 1 ft [0 ...42 RESISTIVITY LOGS where: a = tortuosity factor Resistivity logs are used to: m = cementation exponent • determine hydrocarbon-bearing versus water n = saturation exponent bearing zones Rw = resistivity of formation water • indicate permeable zones φ = porosity • determine porosity Rt = true formation resistivity from resistivity log The …Jun 24, 2015 · The gamma ray API unit is defined as 1/200 of the difference between the count rate recorded by a logging tool in the middle of the radioactive bed and that recorded in the middle of the nonradioactive bed. While it has served fairly well for more than 40 years, this is a poor way to define a fundamental unit. Jan 1, 1983 · The basic log is an electrical log that records resistivity and spontaneous potential (S. P.) against depth. The resistivity of a porous rock is a function of its porosity, the pore-space geometry, the resistivity of the interstitial fluids and their salinity, and their temperature. Object Moved This document may be found hereResistivity Log. The resistivity log is acquired by measurements of the resistance of the coal and associated rocks to flow of electrical currents and by inducing currents into the reservoir rock (Figure 7.29) ( Scholes & Johnston, 1993 ). Consequently, various combinations of electric and induction resistivity logs are deployed depending on ... Fluid-resistivity logs record the electric resistivity of water in the borehole. Changes in fluid resistivity reflect differences in dissolved-solids concentration of water. Fluid-resistivity logs are useful for delineating water-bearing zones and identifying vertical flow in the borehole. Temperature logs record the water temperature in the ...

Focused Resistivity Log . Focused resistivity systems were designed to measure the resistivity of thin beds or high-resistivity rocks in wells containing highly conductive fluids. A number of different types of focused resistivity systems are used commercially such as "guard" or "laterolog." Focused or guard logs ...Log Self Potential (SP)-Resistivity atau Gamma Ray ( GR)-Sonic merupakan pasangan log yang umum digunakan dan mempunyai pola yang sama, pada umumnya memiliki bentuk bell-shaped, dan funnel-shaped. Skala suksesi fasies merupakan hal yang sangat penting dalam melakukan interpretasi dengan bentuk kurva log, contohnya pola funnel-shaped tebalnya ...A resistivity log-derived and gas-corrected pseudo-synthetic seismogram: application to the Fanpokeng Gas Field of northwestern Taiwan. Resistivity logs have been used by …Electrical conductivity (or specific conductance) is the reciprocal of electrical resistivity. It represents a material's ability to conduct electric current. It is commonly signified by the Greek letter σ ( sigma ), but κ ( kappa) (especially in electrical engineering) and γ ( gamma) are sometimes used.

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Logging-While-Drilling—Compensated Dual Resistivity Tool (LWD-CDR*). Description. lwd_pic. The LWD-CDR was an electromagnetic propagation and spectral gamma ...Figure 3 is a deep induction log recorded with a shallow resistivity device and SP, while Figure 4 is a compensated density-neutron log with a gamma ray. The well is an unconsolidated sand and shale sequence from the Gulf Coast area. Interval D is apparently wet because of the low resistivity.Sep 9, 2022 · According to the objective phenomenon of obvious changes in reservoir physical properties caused by hydrate development, a logging two-parameter calculation model based on resistivity and acoustic interval transit time was proposed, and the continuous acquisition of hydrate saturation parameters based on logging data was realized. RESISTIVITY LOGGING In most runs of a resistivity tool, the major purpose is to obtain measurements of Rt, the true resistivity of the formation. However, there are a variety of complicating factors involved which may require corrections to be made to the recorded values in order to obtain good estimates of the true resistivities. AllDec 7, 2022 · Types of resistivity logs. There are several types of resistivity logs. The common types of resistivity logs include sonic, induction, laterolog, normal resistivity, and microlog logs. Each has its own strengths and weaknesses. Resistivity tools consist of four or more electrodes that are mounted on a pad.

Kurva Resistivity Log (Adi Harsono:”Evaluasi Formasi dan Aplikasi Log”, Schlumberger, Edisi-8, Jakarta, 1 Mei 1997) A. Normal Log Skema rangkaian dasar normal log dapat dilihat pada gambar 3.3, dengan menganggap bahwa pengukurannya pada medium yang mengelilingi electrode-elektrode adalah homogen dengan tahanan batuan sebesar R ohm- meter. Fluid-temperature logging measures the temperature of the borehole fluid with depth, whereas fluid-conductivity logging measures variations in fluid-electrical conductivity (or its inverse, resistivity) with depth.When invasion is moderate to deep, knowledge of resistivity of the invaded zone (R xo) is required to derive the resistivity of the uninvaded zone (R t) from the …Log Resistivity digunakan untuk mendeterminasi zona hidrokarbon dan zona air, mengindikasikan zona permeabel dengan mendeteminasi porositas resistivitas, karena batuan dan matrik tidak konduktif, maka kemampuan batuan untuk menghantarkan arus listrik tergantung pada fluida dan pori Alat-alat yang digunakan untuk mencari nilai resistivitas (Rt ...Log Self Potential (SP)-Resistivity atau Gamma Ray ( GR)-Sonic merupakan pasangan log yang umum digunakan dan mempunyai pola yang sama, pada umumnya memiliki bentuk bell-shaped, dan funnel-shaped. Skala suksesi fasies merupakan hal yang sangat penting dalam melakukan interpretasi dengan bentuk kurva log, contohnya pola funnel-shaped tebalnya ...4.resistivity log Hammad Ahmad Sheikh 11.8K views•47 slides. SP Log Zubair Kamboh 8.3K views•30 slides. Density log and its uses Ruhr Universität Bochum 1.5K views•14 slides. Resistivity log Saad Raja 11.7K•15 slides. Neutron log Zubair Kamboh 7.2K•31 slides. Well logging •80 slides.This article discusses the resistivity formula and its derivation. Resistivity refers to the electrical resistance of a conductor of a particular unit cross-sectional area and unit length. Furthermore, experts can use resistivity for comparing different materials on basis of their ability to conduct electric currents.Resistivity logs discriminate hydrocarbons from brine sands by virtue of the lower conductivity of the hydrocarbons compared to the brines. Our NNA for ...

Standard interpretation is the process of determining volumes of hydrocarbons in place from wireline logs, or log interpretation. This process requires four basic steps: Determine the volume of shale. Shale affects the response of the various logging devices.

Resistivity Log. The resistivity log is acquired by measurements of the resistance of the coal and associated rocks to flow of electrical currents and by inducing currents into the reservoir rock (Figure 7.29) ( Scholes & Johnston, 1993 ). Consequently, various combinations of electric and induction resistivity logs are deployed depending on ... Density and neutron logs can be crossplotted against resistivity in a manner identical to the sonic logs. For density logs, the intersection of the 100% water line with the infinite-resistivity line yields …We would like to show you a description here but the site won’t allow us.Pendeteksian rekahan dalam well logging biasanya dilakukan dengan log akustik tetapi teknologi saat ini kebanyakan mencoba mendeteksi dengan pengukuran log resistivity.Prinsip kerja dari log resistivity adalah untuk mendeteksi ketahanan elektrik suatu formasi dan dapat menyebabkan terjadinya anomali resistivity apabila melewati …It’s just a common sense, step-by-step approach in interpreting any well logs. But the results are magical.This is a technique I called ‘The Ko Ko Rules’. To make it work, you need to have Gamma Ray Log, Resistivity Logs, Density and Neutron logs plotted on the same log plot respectively. Then, by looking at how the curve deflects ...Resistivity, along with acoustic and velocity logs, is a very valuable tool in defining lithologic boundaries over intervals of poor core recovery. In a particular example, the decrease in resistivity towards the top of a carbonate unit, coupled with a decrease in velocity, allowed one to interpret this unit as a fining-upward sequence in ...The log may be either geological logs or geophysical logs. In geothermal, geophysical logging is done to identify location of fractures, the lithology and record the physical parameters like temperature and pressure. Important logs include temperature, pressure, gamma, neutron, cement bond log, calliper log, resistivity and directional surveying.Dec 20, 2018 · Fluid-resistivity logs record the electric resistivity of water in the borehole. Changes in fluid resistivity reflect differences in dissolved-solids concentration of water. Fluid-resistivity logs are useful for delineating water-bearing zones and identifying vertical flow in the borehole. Temperature logs record the water temperature in the ...

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Resistivity logs discriminate hydrocarbons from brine sands by virtue of the lower conductivity of the hydrocarbons compared to the brines. Our NNA for ...Stream Disney, Marvel, Pixar, Star Wars, National Geographic | Disney+to measure the true resistivity of geologic for-mations. AIT measurement of conductivity as a function of both depth and distance from the borehole has revolutionized induc-tion logging by increasing the depth of inves-tigation of the measured signal concurrent with reducing the vertical resolution from 4 to 2 ft [1.22 to 0.61 m] and to 1 ft [0 ... Low Temperature Resistivity. The temperature dependence of resistivity at temperatures around room temperature is characterized by a linear increase with temperature. Microscopic examination of the conductivity shows it to be proportional to the mean free path between collisions (d), and for temperatures above about 15 K, d is limited by thermal vibrations of the …Thus, the vertical resistivity cannot be detected at all by conventional resistivity logging tools in vertical wells. Fig. 8 shows a modeled tool response illustrating differences caused by anisotropy between CDR logs in a vertical well (0° dip) and in a highly deviated well (80° dip). At 0° dip, the CDR log reads R h.Radial response functions are used to invert the set of matched vertical resolution logs in the four-parameter invasion model, producing a detailed description of the radial resistivity. Introducing other petrophysical parameters, such as F , R w , and R t , and a suitable saturation equation (see Saturation Determination section) allows imaging …PDF that contains the data for a given resistivity log, it is difficult assess these two factors, thus, our recommendation is to find as many resistivity logs ...ABSTRACT A distinction is established between the observed resistivity, or apparent resistivity, recorded on the electric log and the resistivity and of the undisturbed …Apr 12, 2023 · Resistivity inversion plays a significant role in recent geological exploration, which can obtain formation information through logging data. However, resistivity inversion faces various challenges in practice. Conventional inversion approaches are always time-consuming, nonlinear, non-uniqueness, and ill-posed, which can result in an inaccurate and inefficient description of subsurface ... Gambar 16. Grafik respon Log Resistivity (Rider, 2002) 3.5.2 Log Radioaktif . Log radioaktif pada prinsipnya menyelidiki intensitas radioaktif mineral yang mengandung radioaktif dalam suatu lapisan batuan dengan menggunakan suatu radioaktif tertentu. 3.5.2.1 Log Gamma Ray . Prinsip log gamma ray adalah perekaman radioaktif alami bumi.The more traditional logging technique is the normal-resistivity method, which measures the bulk-electrical resistivity of the materials surrounding the borehole using variably spaced electrodes. A commutated direct current is applied to and maintained across the current (i.e., A and B) electrodes. As such, the measured resistivity of the ... ….

resistivity log 1. n. [Formation Evaluation] A log of the resistivity of the formation, expressed in ohm-m. The resistivity can take a wide range of values, and, therefore, for convenience is usually presented on a logarithmic scale from, for example, 0.2 to 2000 ohm-m.With either laterolog or induction deep-resistivity measurements, it is essential to record at least three resistivity-log curves with different depths of investigation. With fewer than three competent measurements, it is not possible to make an estimate of the invasion parameters, and R t and R xo become guesses.Pore pressure gradient can be determined either from well logs (Resistivity log and Sonic log) or from seismic interval velocity. There are several pore pressure techniques already in use, but one of the most popular methods was designed by Ben Eaton. These pore pressure equations can be converted from using either well logs or interval ...Methodology Resistivity logging is a method of well logging that works by characterizing the rock or sediment in a borehole by measuring its electrical resistivity. Resistivity is a fundamental material property which represents how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current. In these logs, resistivity is measured using 4 ...Radial response functions are used to invert the set of matched vertical resolution logs in the four-parameter invasion model, producing a detailed description of the radial resistivity. Introducing other petrophysical parameters, such as F , R w , and R t , and a suitable saturation equation (see Saturation Determination section) allows imaging …Resistivity logging measures the subsurface electrical resistivity, which is the ability to impede the flow of electric current. This helps to differentiate between formations filled with salty waters (good conductors of electricity) and those filled with hydrocarbons (poor conductors of electricity). kelompok yaitu Latere log dan Log Induksi. Yang umum dikenal sebagai log Rt adalah LLd (Deep Latere log Resistivity), LLs (Shallow Latere log Resisitivity), ILd ( Deep Induction Resisitivity), ILm (Medium Induction Resistivity), dan SFL. 3.8.4. Latere log Prinsip kerja dari latere log ini adalah memfokuskan arus listrik secara lateral keABSTRACT A distinction is established between the observed resistivity, or apparent resistivity, recorded on the electric log and the resistivity and of the undisturbed …4. Log Resistivitas Resistivity log adalah metoda untuk mengukur sifat batuan dan fluida pori seperti minyak, air dan gas disepanjang lubang bor dengan mengukur sifat tahanan kelistrikannya. Besaran resistivitas batuan dideskripsikan dengan Ohm Meter, dan biasanya dibuat dalam skala logarithmic dengan nilai antara 0,2 sampai dengan 2000Jan 4, 2018 · Resistivity Logs are well logs that record the resistivity of a formation. Resistivity is the property of a material that resists the flow of electrical current. The reciprocal of resistivity is conductivity. Resistivity is defined by the equation [2] Where: R is resistivity r is resistance A is cross-sectional area L is length Log resistivity, Hagiwara mentioned that induction log tool response is a function of vertical and horizontal resistivities, tool configuration, and operating frequency.According to Zhou (), in LWD resistivity logs associated with horizontal and highly deviated wells “horns” are visible when the wellbore crosses a bed boundary., Accurate gas saturation calculations are critical to evaluating the production of marine shale gas reservoirs. As a high-resolution exploration method, geophysical resistivity well-logging technology has been widely applied in almost all types of oil/gas reservoirs to evaluate formation fluid saturation. Although the calculated saturations are accurate for conventional reservoirs, it is a ..., Log Resistivitas (Resistivity log) Log Resistivitas (Resistivity Log) adalah log yang digunakan untuk mengukur sifat batuan dan fluida pori (minyak, gas, air) disepanjang lubang bor dengan mengukur sifat tahanan kelistrikannya. Resistivitas berbanding terbalik dengan konduktivitas. Besaran pada log resistivitas batuan menggunakan satuan Ohm., Moreover, resistivity logs in horizontal wells are effective in detecting the presence of adjacent beds. Although the horns associated with resistivity measurements in highly deviated wells are ..., semoga dapat membantu walau kurangnya jawaban pengertian lengkap untuk menyatakan artinya. pada postingan di atas pengertian dari kata “resistivity log” …, 4. Log Resistivitas Resistivity log adalah metoda untuk mengukur sifat batuan dan fluida pori seperti minyak, air dan gas disepanjang lubang bor dengan mengukur sifat tahanan kelistrikannya. Besaran resistivitas batuan dideskripsikan dengan Ohm Meter, dan biasanya dibuat dalam skala logarithmic dengan nilai antara 0,2 sampai dengan 2000, Jun 24, 2015 · If the formation is water-bearing, the resistivity and porosity measurements can be used. For the determination of ϕ and V lam, a combination of porosity logs can be used. For example, as illustrated in Fig. 1, a crossplot of ϕ N and ϕ B from a density log is effective. The triangle of the figure is defined by the matrix point, water point ... , This table presents the electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity of several materials. Electrical resistivity, represented by the Greek letter ρ (rho), is a measure of how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current. The lower the resistivity, the more readily the material permits the flow of electric charge., 4. Log Resistivitas Resistivity log adalah metoda untuk mengukur sifat batuan dan fluida pori seperti minyak, air dan gas disepanjang lubang bor dengan mengukur sifat tahanan kelistrikannya. Besaran resistivitas batuan dideskripsikan dengan Ohm Meter, dan biasanya dibuat dalam skala logarithmic dengan nilai antara 0,2 sampai dengan 2000, Are you a Churchill.com customer looking for an easy way to manage your account? With the My Account feature, you can easily log in, view your account details, and make changes to your policy. Here’s how to get started:, The occurrence of difficult lithologies can be identified from the following sources: Local knowledge of formations in the area. Cuttings from the well. Mudlogs of the well. Conventional core analysis. Sidewall percussion core analysis. Sidewall rotary core analysis. Analysis of log responses. The methods to determine the occurrence of ..., The usefulness of the electrical resistivity log in determining reservoir characteristics is governed largely by: (i) the accuracy with which the true resistivity of the formation can be ..., Temperature coefficient of resistivity Example: A platinum resistance thermometer has a resistance R 0 0=20 ºC. α for Pt is 3.92×10-3 (ºC)-1. The thermometer is immersed in a vessel containing melting tin, at which point R increases to 91.6Ω. What is the melting point of tin? R=R o [1+α(T−T o)]-3 (ºC)-1 (T–20ºC)], A resistivity log-derived and gas-corrected pseudo-synthetic seismogram: application to the Fanpokeng Gas Field of northwestern Taiwan. Resistivity logs have been used by …, Dec 7, 2022 · Types of resistivity logs. There are several types of resistivity logs. The common types of resistivity logs include sonic, induction, laterolog, normal resistivity, and microlog logs. Each has its own strengths and weaknesses. Resistivity tools consist of four or more electrodes that are mounted on a pad. , Archie’s equation for calculating water saturation is: (4.148b) where Rw is the resistivity of formation water and Rt the true resistivity of the formation. For cementation factor m =2, Archie’s constant a =1 and the saturation exponent n =2: (4.148c) Substituting Eq. (4.148c) into (4.148a) and solving explicitly for porosity yields:, The usefulness of the electrical resistivity log in determining reservoircharacteristics is governed largely by: the accuracy with which the trueresistivity of the formation can be …, MSFL (Micro Resistivity Log) : Log Shallow Resistivity biasa menggunakan log MSFL, yang digunakan untuk mengukur resistivitas pada zona yang terinfasi mud filtrate . Sedangkan induction log mengukur konduktivitas formasi yang merupakan kebalikan dari resistivitas. Induction log bekerja dengan baik pada sumur yang mengandung fluida non-konduktif ... , Jun 26, 2019 · This table presents the electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity of several materials. Electrical resistivity, represented by the Greek letter ρ (rho), is a measure of how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current. The lower the resistivity, the more readily the material permits the flow of electric charge. , Resistivity Log. The resistivity log, often referred to as an “electric” log, operates on the basis of formation response to an imposed electric current and the natural …, resistivity in the conventional sense, and are usually referred to as resistivity tools. Both the induction logs and the laterologs come in different types, which are sensitive to different depths of penetration into the borehole. Hence resistivity determinations for the invaded, partly invaded and undisturbed rock zones can be measured., Jan 18, 2022 · The basic open hole wireline logging devices can be divided into four general groups, as shown in Table 1. The correlation and lithology devices are used primarily to correlate between wells and to discriminate reservoir from nonreservoir rocks. The resistivity devices are used to determine formation resistivity at varying distances from the ... , The sensitivity of resistivity logs to water salinity can be used in an alternative method to SP log estimates of water quality. In a sandstone-shale sequence, resistivity variation is controlled by a variety of phenomena, including cation-exchange mechanisms by clay minerals within the shalier zones, conduction by metallic minerals, and the dissolved ions …, Resistivity measurement systems. The primary purpose of resistivity-measurement systems is to obtain a value of true formation resistivity (Rt) and to quantify the depth of invasion of the drilling-fluid filtrate into the formation. A critical parameter in measurement while drilling (MWD) measurements is formation exposure time (FET), the …, Formation resistivity is crucial for calculating water saturation, which, in turn, is used to estimate the stock-tank oil initially in place. However, obtaining a complete resistivity log can be challenging due to high costs, equipment failure, or data loss. To overcome this issue, this study introduces novel machine learning models that can be …, Reservoar low resistivity disebabkan karena keberadaan mineral clay yang bersifat konduktif yaitu illite dan kaolit pada suatu formasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan data well dan data seismik untuk mengetahui karakteristik reservoar zona low resistivity melalui pembuatan structure maps, peta ketebalan lapisan dan peta sebaran impedansi akustik …, 4.resistivity log Hammad Ahmad Sheikh 11.8K views•47 slides. SP Log Zubair Kamboh 8.3K views•30 slides. Density log and its uses Ruhr Universität Bochum 1.5K views•14 slides. Resistivity log Saad Raja 11.7K•15 slides. Neutron log Zubair Kamboh 7.2K•31 slides. Well logging •80 slides., Resistivity logging is an important branch of well logging. Essentially, it is the recording, in uncased (or, recently, even cased) sections of a borehole, of the resistivities …, Prediksi Log TOC Dan S2 Dengan Menggunakan Teknik ∆Log Resistivity 2016 // DOI: 10.12962/j23373520.v5i2 ..., With either laterolog or induction deep-resistivity measurements, it is essential to record at least three resistivity-log curves with different depths of investigation. With fewer than three competent measurements, it is not possible to make an estimate of the invasion parameters, and R t and R xo become guesses., Our unique GuideWave ® resistivity tool provides deep-reading azimuthal measurements with 360° boundary detection to enable proactive geosteering. In complex drilling applications, the tool increases reservoir contact, mitigates drilling hazards, avoids fluid contacts, and minimizes sidetracks. See how GuideWave delivered 100% sweet-spot …, You should also notice that the electrode distances shown on these plots are evenly spaced in log distance rather than being evenly spaced in linear distance., The resistivity can be expressed using the SI unit ohm metre (Ω⋅m) — i.e. ohms multiplied by square metres (for the cross-sectional area) then divided by metres (for the length).. Both resistance and resistivity describe how difficult it is to make electrical current flow through a material, but unlike resistance, resistivity is an intrinsic property and does not depend on geometric ...