Groundmass

Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like "Wet" igneous rock melts at a lower temperature than the "dry" version of that same rock because A. the addition of volatiles in "wet" rocks lowers their melting temperature. B. they occur on the seafloor, where temperatures are already cold. C. "dry" igneous rocks are made of more felsic minerals. D. "wet" igneous rocks form at ...

Groundmass. groundmass The finer-grained material of igneous rocks in which larger crystals ( phenocrysts) and xenoliths are enclosed. The groundmass of an igneous rock commonly represents that part of the magma system which has cooled rapidly. Rapid cooling initiates numerous crystal nucleation sites which limit the size to which crystals can grow.

Students also studied. considerable resorption, while zoning in the nephelines is emphasised by a thin reaction border. Aegirine-augite, cossyrite and kataphorite are uniformly scattered through the groundmass which consists largely of alkali-feldspar and some oligoclase. Staining of the rock reveals interstitial birefringent material …

Apr 4, 2023 · The samples were collected on Catoctin Mountain, Frederick County, Maryland, except for the red porphyritic metarhyolite that was collected on South Mountain. Description. A number of rhyolites are included in this discussion: 1) porphyritic metarhyolite: a dark blue-gray to black very fine-grained groundmass with rectilinear plagioclase ... Small crystals significantly larger than the groundmass phases but still microscopic in size are known as microphenocrysts (Winter 2014), a term readily used since the 1940s (Macdonald 1944), again without a commonly accepted quantitative size definition: MacKenzie et al. suggested a size range of 0.05-0.5 mm; Armienti et al. considered ...The inside of the earth is very hot - hot enough to melt rocks.And the deeper you go the hotter it gets. Below the surface the molten rock is called magma; at the earth's surface it becomes lava, although nothing has changed except the name.Students also studied. considerable resorption, while zoning in the nephelines is emphasised by a thin reaction border. Aegirine-augite, cossyrite and kataphorite are uniformly scattered through the groundmass which consists largely of alkali-feldspar and some oligoclase. Staining of the rock reveals interstitial birefringent material …Andesite is the name of a family of fine-grained, extrusive igneous rocks that are usually light to dark gray in color. They have a mineral composition that is intermediate between granite and basalt. Andesite is a rock typically found in volcanoes above convergent plate boundaries between continental and oceanic plates. Dacite from the Western Carpathians. Dacite (/ ˈ d eɪ s aɪ t /) is a volcanic rock formed by rapid solidification of lava that is high in silica and low in alkali metal oxides.It has a fine-grained to porphyritic texture and is intermediate in composition between andesite and rhyolite.It is composed predominantly of plagioclase feldspar and quartz.. Dacite is relatively common, occurring in ...Jun 24, 2005 · The groundmass is red to grayish red; the sporadic phenocrysts are reddish alkali feldspars and blue quartz. Marmor lacedaemonium viride - see REMARKS, second paragraph. Nevadaite - "Rhyolite consisting of large, well-formed crystals of quartz, sanidine, biotite, and hornblende in a small amount of groundmass." Mitchell (1985, p.137).

Nov 13, 2022 · Different groundmass microtextures are observed, also in the same unit: (i) glassy groundmass microlite-free or (ii) with ultra-microlites aligned to the flow direction ; (iii) glassy groundmass locally devitrified with scattered spherulites ; and (iv) heterogeneous groundmass with flow banding in elongated bands or lenses generally of a darker ... (geology) the matrix of fine-grained crystalline material in which larger crystals are embedded.A camptonite is a porphyritic alkaline igneous rock dominated by essential plagioclase and brown amphibole, usually hornblende, often with titanaugite. Plagioclase occurs in the groundmass. Sannaites: From Sannavand, Fen complex, Sweden. Sannaites are broadly to Comptonites, except that they contain alkali feldspar in place of plagioclase.Augite is the second most abundant type of phenocrysts in Andesite, the core of the Augite crystals in Andesite usually have a composition the lie within the range Wo38-50 En7-20 Fs7-20; Augite is also the most abundant crystals in the groundmass and these small crystals have a compositions similar to the phenocrysts.The cores of groundmass grains show some affinity with type (I) apatite grains, in that they generally have equant euhedral shapes, and occur as inclusions in groundmass mica (Fig. 4c). These cores may host abundant monomineralic inclusions of olivine (incipiently altered to serpentine), perovskite, spinel, an unidentified Ca–Zr phase, and a ...Sericite replaces plagioclase and occurs in the groundmass, while both sericite and chlorite have replaced mafic minerals. Quartz and carbonate veins and minor kaolinite are associated with sericite alteration. Two periods of sericite alteration are evident, one prior to the brecciation and K-silicate phase which pervaded the stock, including ...Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Large crystals found in a fine grained groundmass can indicate a(n) _____, Decompression melting results from a reduction in ____, but the _____ remains stable, An igneous rock with no visible crystals _____ and more.The groundmass in this investigation was micrite partially converted into microsparite by cementation or neomorphism. Micrite is the substance that fills the gaps and compartments of fossils. In ...

Groundmass definición: the matrix of igneous rocks, such as porphyry , in which larger crystals ( phenocrysts )... | Significado, pronunciación ...Examples of variation trends from phenocrysts cores towards rims/groundmass mica for kimberlites and lamproites are taken from Mitchell (1995), while those for lamprophyres, lampyrites and ...Mineral/groundmass partition coef alkali basalt from Niyragongo, Zaire, Africa, as ... earth elements (REE) and Sr for synthetic grained groundmass material (0.1 ...Aug 30, 2022 · Groundmass may be coarse-grained (phaneritic), fine-grained (aphanitic), or even glassy or microcrystalline. For granite porphyry, it is coarse-grained. In most cases, a porphyritic granite rock will have pinkish to whitish potassium feldspar phenocrysts set in a phaneritic groundmass. However, there could be other phenocrysts, such as quartz ...

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19 jul 2008 ... Abstract. Groundmass spinel grains in 46 kimberlite and related rocks have been analyzed and compared. The majority of the spinel analyses ...The large crystals are called phenocrysts and the fine-grained matrix is called the groundmass or matrix. Porphyritic texture indicates the magma body underwent a multi-stage cooling history, cooling slowly while deep under the surface and later rising to a shallower depth or the surface where it cooled more quickly. We analyzed plagioclase and pyroxene (± groundmass) separates of 2 cumulate (Moore County and Moama), and 6 basaltic eucrites and 1 olivine diogenite (LAP 031381) with the 40Ar/39Ar technique using a Thermo© ARGUS VI multi-collection mass spectrometer. The textures of the basaltic samples range from gabbroic (Caldera) and granoblastic …In contrast, information about groundmass composition and fabric is relatively limited, with some exceptions (e.g., FitzPatrick, 1984, FitzPatrick, 1993 ). Nevertheless, the groundmass is commonly an important source of information about the nature of the parent material and about pedogenic processes.

There are large, light-colored crystals, known as phenocrysts, suspended in a matrix of fine dark-colored crystals, known as groundmass. An igneous rock composed of minerals with two distinctly different crystal sizes is known as a porphyry. Photograph by the National Park Service. Buy 100G,Small Size Granule Vermiculite.Culture Medium Nutrient Roseite Groundmass,Garden Supplies. at Aliexpress for . Find more , and products.Nov 13, 2022 · Different groundmass microtextures are observed, also in the same unit: (i) glassy groundmass microlite-free or (ii) with ultra-microlites aligned to the flow direction ; (iii) glassy groundmass locally devitrified with scattered spherulites ; and (iv) heterogeneous groundmass with flow banding in elongated bands or lenses generally of a darker ... 16 sept 2015 ... Groundmass crystallisation and cooling rates of lava-like ignimbrites: the Grey's Landing ignimbrite, southern Idaho, USA. B. S. Ellis,; B.groundmass The finer-grained material of igneous rocks in which larger crystals ( phenocrysts) and xenoliths are enclosed. The groundmass of an igneous rock commonly represents that part of the magma system which has cooled rapidly. Rapid cooling initiates numerous crystal nucleation sites which limit the size to which crystals can grow.Dec 1, 2020 · The titanomagnetite microphenocrysts crystallize to form the groundmass of the MMEs, which are typically 20–50 μm (Fig. S2) and have higher Al 2 O 3 and lower V 2 O 3 and TiO 2 contents than titanomagnetite phenocrysts from the dacites (Fig. S5; Table S6). Phaneritic Groundmass Laccoliths, dikes, sills, plugs, small stocks, margins of larger masses: Peridotite porphyry KIMBERLITE: peridotite porphyry or breccia : Aphanitic Groundmass Dikes, sills, laccoliths, surface flows, margins of larger masses, welded tuffs : Limburgite porphyry : Trap: dark-colored aphanitic rock. Felsite: light-colored ...16 sept 2015 ... Groundmass crystallisation and cooling rates of lava-like ignimbrites: the Grey's Landing ignimbrite, southern Idaho, USA. B. S. Ellis,; B.Search from 672 Groundmass stock photos, pictures and royalty-free images from iStock. Find high-quality stock photos that you won't find anywhere else.Oct 20, 2021 · Examples of variation trends from phenocrysts cores towards rims/groundmass mica for kimberlites and lamproites are taken from Mitchell (1995), while those for lamprophyres, lampyrites and ... (c) Holocrystalline groundmass (HCG), plagioclase > 200 lm). (d) Hopper olivine in FGG. (a, c, d) cross-polarized light; (b) plane-polarized light.

Groundmass definition: the matrix of igneous rocks, such as porphyry , in which larger crystals ( phenocrysts )... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples

Groundmass may be coarse-grained (phaneritic), fine-grained (aphanitic), or even glassy or microcrystalline. For granite porphyry, it is coarse-grained. In most cases, a porphyritic granite rock will have pinkish to whitish potassium feldspar phenocrysts set in a phaneritic groundmass. However, there could be other phenocrysts, such as quartz ...Groundmass - The finer grained and/or glassy material between the large crystals (phenocrysts) in an igneous rock. Most often used when describing porphyritic volcanic rocks but may be applicable for some plutonic rocks.Search from 672 Groundmass stock photos, pictures and royalty-free images from iStock. Find high-quality stock photos that you won't find anywhere else.Felsitic texture is a microcrystalline texture of the ground-mass of acid extrusive rocks. The groundmass of such rocks consists of minute crystalline ...Augite is the second most abundant type of phenocrysts in Andesite, the core of the Augite crystals in Andesite usually have a composition the lie within the range Wo38-50 En7-20 Fs7-20; Augite is also the most abundant crystals in the groundmass and these small crystals have a compositions similar to the phenocrysts.Aug 29, 2022 · Porphyritic basalt or basalt porphyry describes basalt rocks with large crystals known as phenocrysts dispersed in a fine-grain matrix or groundmass. So, the word porphyry (pronounced as POR-fə-ree) is a textural term, and rocks with this texture are said to be porphyritic. Phaneritic Groundmass Laccoliths, dikes, sills, plugs, small stocks, margins of larger masses: Peridotite porphyry KIMBERLITE: peridotite porphyry or breccia : Aphanitic Groundmass Dikes, sills, laccoliths, surface flows, margins of larger masses, welded tuffs : Limburgite porphyry : Trap: dark-colored aphanitic rock. Felsite: light-colored ...Sep 2, 2022 · Porphyry (pronounced as POR-fə-ree) describes any intrusive or extrusive igneous texture rock with large-grained crystals embedded in a finer-grain matrix. The finer-grained groundmass or matrix can be aphanitic or phaneritic. However, the larger crystals must be easily noticed and distinguishable. Melt inclusions in quartz from HSR-e plot with glasses adhering to quartz crystals and 258 groundmass glass remote from crystals in thin section (collectively referred to as “external 259 glasses”) from those samples. Melt inclusions from Ti-poor quartz cores in the HSR-d and LSR 260 plot with HSR-e glasses, whereas MIs that plot with HSR-d ...

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This andesite is so packed with plagioclase and hornblende phenocrysts that it almost looks coarse-grained. A close look (photo below) reveals a fine-grained gray groundmass surrounding the phenocrysts. The orangish coloring on some of the grains is iron staining. The black phenocrysts are hornblende, the white crystals are plagioclase. Jun 24, 2005 · The groundmass is red to grayish red; the sporadic phenocrysts are reddish alkali feldspars and blue quartz. Marmor lacedaemonium viride - see REMARKS, second paragraph. Nevadaite - "Rhyolite consisting of large, well-formed crystals of quartz, sanidine, biotite, and hornblende in a small amount of groundmass." Mitchell (1985, p.137). The different groundmass mineralogy of these two kimberlite varieties, i.e. monticellite versus calcite, might simply reflect differences in low-pressure CO2 degassing phenomena, (e.g. Abersteiner et al., 2018; Abersteiner et al., 2020). Hence, their petrogenesis is discussed only briefly with reference to the D14 monticellite kimberlite.Groundmass - The finer grained and/or glassy material between the large crystals (phenocrysts) in an igneous rock. Most often used when describing porphyritic volcanic rocks but may be applicable for some plutonic rocks.Porphyritic is an adjective used in geology to describe igneous rocks with a distinct difference in the size of mineral crystals, with the larger crystals known as phenocrysts. Both extrusive and intrusive rocks can be porphyritic, meaning all types of igneous rocks can display some degree of porphyritic texture.Oct 20, 2021 · Examples of variation trends from phenocrysts cores towards rims/groundmass mica for kimberlites and lamproites are taken from Mitchell (1995), while those for lamprophyres, lampyrites and ... Quick Reference. The finer-grained material of igneous rocks in which larger crystals (phenocrysts) and xenoliths are enclosed. The groundmass of an igneous rock commonly represents that part of the magma system which has cooled rapidly. Rapid cooling initiates numerous crystal nucleation sites which limit the size to which crystals can grow. • Vitrophyric – phenocrysts set in a glassy groundmass • Poikilitic – phenocrysts contain numerous inclusions of another mineral that they enveloped with growth. Host crystal is called an Oikocryst. • Vesicles - holes in the rock formed by escaping gases during solidification Properties of Igneous RocksAndesite is the name of a family of fine-grained, extrusive igneous rocks that are usually light to dark gray in color. They have a mineral composition that is intermediate between granite and basalt. Andesite is a rock typically found in volcanoes above convergent plate boundaries between continental and oceanic plates. Earth Sciences questions and answers. B A First, we will construct the history of formation of the rock above (you have seen it before!). This rock is plagioclase [Select] [Select] identified by the fine groundmass surrounding large phenocrysts of and intermediate composition. Ca rich feldspar is associated with composition, indicating that the ...Sericite replaces plagioclase and occurs in the groundmass, while both sericite and chlorite have replaced mafic minerals. Quartz and carbonate veins and minor kaolinite are associated with sericite alteration. Two periods of sericite alteration are evident, one prior to the brecciation and K-silicate phase which pervaded the stock, including ... ….

In fresh andesites the devitrification of glass has an important affect on the rockÆs properties. The Taranaki andesites are shown to have unusually (in comparison with other North Island andesites) high Na2O contents, held in the groundmass glass, which is the fundamental reason for the high alkali û silica reactivity of these andesites.• Vitrophyric – phenocrysts set in a glassy groundmass • Poikilitic – phenocrysts contain numerous inclusions of another mineral that they enveloped with growth. Host crystal is called an Oikocryst. • Vesicles - holes in the rock formed by escaping gases during solidification Properties of Igneous Rocks Oct 11, 2023 · groundmass: 1 n (geology) the matrix of fine-grained crystalline material in which larger crystals are embedded Type of: igneous rock rock formed by the solidification of molten magma Porphyritic basalt or basalt porphyry describes basalt rocks with large crystals known as phenocrysts dispersed in a fine-grain matrix or groundmass. So, the word porphyry (pronounced as POR-fə-ree) is a textural term, and rocks with this texture are said to be porphyritic.a microlitic groundmass. The interior of the sills is composed of coarsely porphyritic and seriate dolerite with a subophitic to granular groundmass dominated by laths of plagioclase with subordinate cli-nopyroxene and a small amount of magnetite. The dominant plagio-clase phenocryst phase is zoned, euhedral to subhedral, and frequentlyAn igneous rock that has a medium-gray, fine-grained groundmass with large crystals of plagioclase. crystallized at depth from intermediate-composition magma, then rose to the surface and became a lava flow. Which of the following words could be used to describe portions of a rock with a porphyritic texture? The inside of the earth is very hot - hot enough to melt rocks.And the deeper you go the hotter it gets. Below the surface the molten rock is called magma; at the earth's surface it becomes lava, although nothing has changed except the name. The large crystals are called phenocrysts and the fine-grained matrix is called the groundmass or matrix. Porphyritic texture indicates the magma body underwent a multi-stage cooling history, cooling slowly while deep under the surface and later rising to a shallower depth or the surface where it cooled more quickly. a microlitic groundmass. The interior of the sills is composed of coarsely porphyritic and seriate dolerite with a subophitic to granular groundmass dominated by laths of plagioclase with subordinate cli-nopyroxene and a small amount of magnetite. The dominant plagio-clase phenocryst phase is zoned, euhedral to subhedral, and frequentlynoun. ground· mass ˈgrau̇n (d)-ˌmas. : the fine-grained or glassy base of a porphyry in which the larger distinct crystals are embedded. Groundmass, Definition of groundmass in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of groundmass. Information and translations of groundmass in the most comprehensive dictionary …, heterogeneous glassy groundmass with perlitic texture and darker flow bands (optical microscopic image plane polarized, unit L, sample AMT 14-71b); (g) glassy groundmass with perlitic texture and flow band enriched in crystal fragments (BSE-SEM image, unit L, sample AMT 13–10); (h) highly vesicular glassy groundmass with, Dec 1, 2020 · The titanomagnetite microphenocrysts crystallize to form the groundmass of the MMEs, which are typically 20–50 μm (Fig. S2) and have higher Al 2 O 3 and lower V 2 O 3 and TiO 2 contents than titanomagnetite phenocrysts from the dacites (Fig. S5; Table S6). , Diopside is a late-stage groundmass mineral (up to ~ 10 vol%) occurring between phlogopite laths in the groundmass, and is more abundant within and surrounding groundmass segregations (Fig. 4c). These rare segregations are ≤ 10 mm long and irregular in outline and are partially infilled with calcite and/or serpentine (Fig. 4 d)., Porphyry is any of various decorative granites or igneous rocks with coarse-grained crystals such as feldspar or quartz dispersed in a fine-grained silicate-rich, generally aphanitic matrix or groundmass. The larger crystals are called phenocrysts. In its non-geologic, traditional use, the term porphyry usually … See more, granophyre, fine-grained igneous rock that is characterized by a porphyritic texture, having large crystals (phenocrysts) that rest in a nonglassy, finely crystalline matrix (groundmass). Granophyre is similar to granite, except for its fine texture and smaller grain size; those granophyres that have quartz and alkali feldspar phenocrysts in a ..., Dacite from the Western Carpathians. Dacite (/ ˈ d eɪ s aɪ t /) is a volcanic rock formed by rapid solidification of lava that is high in silica and low in alkali metal oxides.It has a fine-grained to porphyritic texture and is intermediate in composition between andesite and rhyolite.It is composed predominantly of plagioclase feldspar and quartz.. Dacite is relatively common, occurring in ..., granophyre, fine-grained igneous rock that is characterized by a porphyritic texture, having large crystals (phenocrysts) that rest in a nonglassy, finely crystalline matrix (groundmass). Granophyre is similar to granite, except for its fine texture and smaller grain size; those granophyres that have quartz and alkali feldspar phenocrysts in a ..., Porphyritic basalt is a mafic igneous rock having phenocrysts and an aphanitic groundmass. The phenocrysts are calcic plagioclase feldspar (light gray in ..., Hyalopilitic texture is a texture of volcanic rocks in which the groundmass consists of small microlites of feldspar (sub-parallel to each other) embedded in ..., A texture of certain porphyritic rocks in which the groundmass minerals (usually quartz and alkali feldspar) penetrate each other as feathery irregular intergrowths. Resembles micrographic texture, but is more irregula. Irregular veins, patches, lenses, etc., of sodic plagioclase in an alkali feldspar host. , Definitions The Rock Cycle: A conceptual model of how the major rock groups are formed through natural processes and environmental change. Rock: An aggregate, composed primarily of mineral grains, that forms the solid Earth and most of the other solid bits of matter in the Universe. Igneous Rock: Forms as minerals crystallize …, Phenocrysts Coarse groundmass grains Phenocrysts Small groundmass grains Dark-colored rock with fine-grained groundmass. (d) Light-colored rock with coarse-grained groundmass We look first at igneous rocks that have the same chemical composition so that their different textures could only be caused by the different ways in which they cooled., Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Large crystals found in a fine grained groundmass can indicate a(n) _____, Decompression melting results from a reduction in ____, but the _____ remains stable, An igneous rock with no visible crystals _____ and more., An igneous rock with a mixed texture of coarse grains (phenocrysts) surrounded by fine crystals (groundmass) is termed ______. Group of answer choices a., May 31, 2022 · Texture of mare basalt 12002. Rounded and speckled phenocrysts of olivine and large elongate phenocryst of clinopyroxene. Groundmass contains intergrown plagioclase, pyroxene and ilmenite. Figure 18. Large melt inclusion trapped in olivine in 12002. The melt inclusion has crystallized to ilmenite and an intergrowth of plagioclase and pyroxene. , Oct 11, 2023 · groundmass: 1 n (geology) the matrix of fine-grained crystalline material in which larger crystals are embedded Type of: igneous rock rock formed by the solidification of molten magma , 28 may 2020 ... The pumice of the sub-Plinian eruption has the least differentiated groundmass interstices composition. The groundmass inter- stices of the ..., See examples of C/d in English. Real sentences showing how to use C/d correctly., The groundmass contains some calcic plagioclase but is composed mainly of radiating arrays of very thin, acicular, strongly-zoned pigeonite grains, some of which are oriented perpendicular to edges of the larger mineral grains and appear to have nucleated on them. Accessory phases in the matrix include medium Ti-chromite, troilite, ulvöspinel ..., A porphyritic volcanic rock with a glassy groundmass is described as having a vitrophyric texture and the rock can be called a vitrophyre. Other porphyritic rocks may well reflect less drastic shifts in position and perhaps more subtle and complex changes in conditions of temperature, pressure, or crystallization rates. Many phenocrysts could ... , The porphyritic texture is a type of texture occurring in volcanic and intrusive igneous rocks defined by the presence of larger crystals, called phenocrysts, surrounded by a matrix of considerably smaller crystals or igneous glass, called groundmass. The word derives from the Ancient Greek porphyra, ‘purple’, in reference to “imperial ..., Define groundmass. groundmass synonyms, groundmass pronunciation, groundmass translation, English dictionary definition of groundmass. n. The fine-grained crystalline base of porphyritic rock in which larger crystals are embedded., Thus, high in-situ Sr isotopic ratios of plagioclase groundmass are mostly attributed to the contamination of subduction-related aqueous fluids, accordingly resulting in the formation of secondary altered minerals in the groundmass (some altered dark-colored mineral particles; Figure 2) and the elevated in-situ Rb/Sr ratios, Rb contents, and 87 ..., Oct 29, 2021 · Small crystals significantly larger than the groundmass phases but still microscopic in size are known as microphenocrysts (Winter 2014), a term readily used since the 1940s (Macdonald 1944), again without a commonly accepted quantitative size definition: MacKenzie et al. suggested a size range of 0.05-0.5 mm; Armienti et al. considered ... , ... groundmass. A porphyritic texture is developed when magma that has been ... groundmass of sintered ash. The flattened pumice clasts are lenticular (lens ..., This andesite is so packed with plagioclase and hornblende phenocrysts that it almost looks coarse-grained. A close look (photo below) reveals a fine-grained gray groundmass surrounding the phenocrysts. The orangish coloring on some of the grains is iron staining. The black phenocrysts are hornblende, the white crystals are plagioclase. , Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Large crystals found in a fine grained groundmass can indicate a(n) _____, Decompression melting results from a reduction in ____, but the _____ remains stable, An igneous rock with no visible crystals _____ and more., Mar 14, 2023 · Rhyolite, with felsic minerals comprising >20% quartz and alkali feldspar/plagioclase 40-90%.. A group of extrusive igneous rocks, typically porphyritic and commonly exhibiting flow texture, with phenocrysts of quartz and alkali feldspar in a glassy to cryptocrystalline groundmass; also, any rock in that group; the extrusive equivalent of granite. , Fibrous crystals of riebeckite on rock groundmass. C053/8725. Rights Managed. 49.7 MB (12.8 MB compressed). 4950 x 3510 pixels., Define groundmass. groundmass synonyms, groundmass pronunciation, groundmass translation, English dictionary definition of groundmass. n. The fine-grained crystalline base of porphyritic rock in which larger crystals are embedded., feldspar minerals. In feldspar: Crystal structure. (A porphyry is an igneous rock containing conspicuous crystals, called phenocrysts, surrounded by a matrix of finer-grained minerals or glass or both.) In most rocks, both alkali and plagioclase feldspars occur as irregularly shaped grains with only a few or no crystal faces. , May 8, 2018 · groundmass The finer-grained material of igneous rocks in which larger crystals ( phenocrysts) and xenoliths are enclosed. The groundmass of an igneous rock commonly represents that part of the magma system which has cooled rapidly. Rapid cooling initiates numerous crystal nucleation sites which limit the size to which crystals can grow.