Differential amplifier bjt

The Input Offset Voltage of BJT Differential Amplifier given collector resistance formula is defined as the voltage that must be applied between the two input terminals of the op-amp to obtain zero volts at the output.

Differential amplifier bjt. It is just another option to use the other collector node as well and defining the amplifier output as Vo2-Vo1. 2.) Differential mode: Assuming linear operation (and this is always assumed) the current increase of the left BJT is equal to the corresponding current reduction of the right BJT.

Figure 3: BJT Differential amplifier. DC Solutions This solution assumes that I0 Q is known. If IQis known, the solutions are the same as above. (a) Zero both inputs. Divide the tail supply into two equal parallel current sources having a current I0 Q/2 in parallel with a resistor 2RQ. The circuit obtained for Q1 isshownontheleftin Fig. 4.

March 24 2021, 13:10. The article describes the design and the performance of a high-quality DC-coupled all-JFET amplifier. The circuit was inspired by John Curl and Erno Borbely designs and was built with readily available JFETs from Linear Integrated Systems (Linear Systems). The input stage is the complementary JFET differential pair, the ...Differential Amplifiers (I) DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS Outline 1. Introduction 2. Incremental analysis of differential amplifier 3. Common -source differential amplifier Reading Assignment: Howe and Sodini , Chapter 11, Sections 11 -1-11.3, 11.6. ... – Analog circuits (BJT and CMOS): f6–4 The Common-Collector Amplifier 6–5 The Common-Base Amplifier 6–6 Multistage Amplifiers 6–7 The Differential Amplifier 6–8 Troubleshooting Device Application CHAPTER OBJECTIVES Describe amplifier operation Discuss transistor models Describe and analyze the operation of common-emitter amplifiersA BJT differential amplifier is a type of amplifier that amplifies the difference between two input signals. The following shows a differential amplifier block diagram. Internally, it is implemented using a pair of identical transistors(Q1,Q2), configured in a differential pair, with identical biasing resistors(RC,RB,RE) as shown in the figure ...Simulations to verify the DC transfer curve and differential gain for a BJT differential amplifier with different configurations (tail resistor vs. current m...

Normally an NPN differential pair input would mean that the output was referred to the positive rail and would need a PNP in the VAS. By implementing it as shown the VAS (Q15)can be an NPN. Q5 and Q6 merely need to act as common base devices to transfer the currents from the differential input stage to the current mirror Q7/Q8 and the …May 22, 2022 · An amplifier with sufficiently high CMRR can be used to separate the desired signal from the interfering noise. The analysis of Section 7.3.2 indicates that the common-mode rejection ratio of a differential amplifier with the output taken between collectors should be infinite. Penguat Diferensial Menggunakan BJT. Differential Amplifier atau Penguat Diferensial adalah penguat atau amplifier yang menguatkan selisih dua tegangan input dimana penguatan ini mempunyai ciri-ciri : Memiliki dua terminal input dan satu terminal output, sehingga membutuhkan dua Bipolar Junction Transistor. Memiliki tegangan bias negatif pada ...A basic differential amplifier is an electronics circuit that produces output(s) which is proportional to the two input signal. Differential amplifier are also called difference amplifier.They can be constructed using discrete BJT(Bipolar Junction Transistor) transistors or FET(Field Effect Transistor) or fabricated in a single Integrated Circuits(IC) …Differential Amplifiers. Differential amplifier amplifies the difference between two voltages, making this type of operational amplifier circuit a sub tractor unlike a summing amplifier which adds or sums together the input voltages. These types of operational amplifier circuits are commonly known as a differential amplifier.Two modified hybrid-\(\pi \) models follow from the previous discussion and using the parameters given in Table 4.1.One for the cascoded bjt and one for the cascoded fet.. The hybrid-\(\pi \) model capable of describing both linear and second-order behavior of the cascoded bjt (a ce stage loaded by a cf (a common-base (cb) or a common-gate (cg) …

In this video, the design and working of BJT- differential amplifier is explained. By watching this video, you will learn the following topics:0:00 Introduct...Differential BJT Amplifier. This project shows the preliminary design of a differential amplifier, and demonstrates a Linearized Harmonic Balance (similar to a spice AC analysis) simulator …Difference amplifiers should have no common-mode gain Note that each of these gains are open-circuit voltage gains. * An ideal differential amplifier has zero common-mode gain (i.e., A cm =0)! * In other words, the output of an ideal differential amplifier is independent of the common-mode (i.e., average) of the two input signals. Normally an NPN differential pair input would mean that the output was referred to the positive rail and would need a PNP in the VAS. By implementing it as shown the VAS (Q15)can be an NPN. Q5 and Q6 merely need to act as common base devices to transfer the currents from the differential input stage to the current mirror Q7/Q8 and the input of Q15.In this video, the design and working of BJT- differential amplifier is explained. By watching this video, you will learn the following topics:0:00 Introduct...Jun 13, 2014 · The Si transistors in the differential amplifier circuit of the figure shown have negligible leakage current and ß 1 = ß 2 = 60. Also, R C B = 10 kΩ, and V CC = V EE = 15 V. Find the value of R E needed to bias the amplifier such that V ECQ1 = V CEQ2 = 8 V.

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When you need to see a cellular tower location map to find your nearest cell tower, there are a few options, as shown by Wilson Amplifiers. You can use a website or smartphone app to find the nearest tower for cellular service, or you can c...7.3 The BJT Differential Pair. Reading Assignment:pp. 704-720. In addition to common- emitter, common- collector (i.e., the emitter follower), and common-base amplifiers, a fourth important and “classic” BJTamplifier stage is the differential pair. HO: Large Signal Operation of the BJT Differential Pair.In this video, the design and working of BJT- differential amplifier is explained. By watching this video, you will learn the following topics:0:00 Introduct... Derivation of the common-mode rejection ratio, input resistance and output resistance for a BJT differential amplifier with balanced output and single-ended ...I'm currently studying the three modes of a BJT differential amplifier, and am struggling with some hypotheses the textbook makes. When examining single input and double input, the author uses a model like the one below, and goes on to an AC analysis of the circuit. simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLabJul 1, 2022 · How does a BJT differential amplifier amplify? Ask Question Asked 1 year, 3 months ago Modified 1 year, 3 months ago Viewed 143 times 2 I am reading The Art of Electronics. I found a related question here. I understand that differential gain of the amplifier is Gdiff = Rc 2(r′ + Re) G diff = R c 2 ( r ′ + R e) but how? OK, using hybrid-pi model.

Apr 14, 2016 · 1. One way to find the gains is to pick a operating point, analyze at that, then perturb it a little and analyze at that. It takes separate pertubations for a common mode change and a differential mode change. For example, analyze everything at 0 V on both inputs. For common mode gain, raise each input 1 V and analyze what happens to the output. Differential BJT amplifier Introduction The differential amplifier has two input signal sources. The ideal differential amplifier produces an output voltage that is the difference between the two input voltages. Vout = Avd(Vin1-Vin2) The differential amplifier has two single ended output voltages. The circuit can be rearranged to combine signal grounds at a common point, as in Figure 11.31(b). Figure 11.31: (a) Small-signal equivalent circuit BJT diff amp ...Nov 27, 2018 · Feedback amplifiers ForwardBlog Enewzletter 61.6K views•13 slides. Inverting amplifier hepzijustin 982 views•11 slides. Differential amplifier Arpit Raval 4K views•12 slides. 3.bipolar junction transistor (bjt) firozamin 104.4K views•44 slides. Power amplifiers Sarah Krystelle 38.5K views•32 slides. Pll ppt parassini 7.3K views•31 ... Analysis and Design of BJT Differential Amplifier Abstract: A differential amplifier is a basic building block for analog integrated circuit design; the operational amplifier integrated circuit has wide applications in signal processing.With an external bias voltage for the pair of p-type transistors, a fully differential amplifier can be achieved; the BJT and MOSFET versions are shown in figure 5.11. However, an auxiliary circuit is needed to generate the DC bias voltages V B0 and V B1 so that the bias current at the bottom is equal to twice the current in each branch.There are a wide variety of reasons for measuring differential pressure, as well as applications in HVAC, plumbing, research and technology industries. These measurements are used in liquid systems for calculating pressure differences the s...The BJT di erential pair The circuit shown in Fig. 3, known as the BJT di erential pair, can be used to amplify only the di erential input signal Vid =(Vi1 Vi2) while rejecting the common-mode signal ViC = 1 2 (Vi1+ Vi2). The two resistors are assumed to be matched and so are the BJTs 2 Q 1 and Q2. Vo Vi 1 Vi2 Vc1 Vc2 VEE I0 VCC RC RC Q Q2 ...

Wheatstone bridge excercise with Differential Amplifier: Homework Help: 3: Jul 7, 2023: Design of differential pair amplifier that is having maximum voltage gain with linearity and it should be biased by a current source while the biasing: Homework Help: 1: Jun 22, 2023: E: Differential Amplifier Analysis/Design: Homework Help: 10: Jun 7, 2020

\$\begingroup\$ "Therefore Re must always be smaller than RL for small signals and <= 1/2 RL for full negative swing when AC coupled". Surely that's not necessary. Even if RL is very low it will be linear for a small enough input swing. For large signals there is no fixed requirement for the ratio of Re to RL - you can never get full negative swing no matter …I'm currently studying the three modes of a BJT differential amplifier, and am struggling with some hypotheses the textbook makes. When examining single input and double input, the author uses a model like the one below, and goes on to an AC analysis of the circuit. simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLabThe differential amplifier circuit using transistors can be designed as shown in the figure below which consists of two transistors T1 and T2. These transistors and resistors are connected as shown in the circuit diagram. Circuit using Transistors. There are two inputs I1 & I2 and two outputs V1out & V2out in the differential amplifier circuit.Differential Amplifiers (I) DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIERS Outline 1. Introduction 2. Incremental analysis of differential amplifier 3. Common -source differential amplifier Reading Assignment: Howe and Sodini , Chapter 11, Sections 11 -1-11.3, 11.6. ... – Analog circuits (BJT and CMOS): fIn today’s digital age, social media has become an invaluable tool for individuals and organizations looking to raise funds for various causes. One platform that has gained significant popularity in recent years is GoFundMe.Capacitor is used for eliminating the DC part. Besides if the power supply of the amplifier is unipolar but the input signal is bipolar, the circuit won't work. Your amplifier is powered by +-vcc, and hence you don't need capacitor at input.Question: My objective is to understand the need of the tail current source in a differential amplifier.. Answer: Consider, what the diff. amplifier is in principle: A two-stage amplifier consisting of a common-gate stage (NMOS 2) driven by a common-drain stage (NMOS1). This description is referenced to an input at the gate of NMOS1. …Analysis and Design of BJT Differential Amplifier. Abstract: A differential amplifier is a basic building block for analog integrated circuit design; the operational amplifier integrated circuit has wide applications in signal processing. In this paper, a bipolar junction transistor BJT differential amplifier circuit is analyzed and designed to ...7. Design a BJT differential amplifier that provides two single-ended outputs (at the collectors). The amplifier is to have a differential gain (to each of the two outputs) of at least 100 V/V, a differential input resistance ≥10k Ω and a common mode gain (to each of the two outputs) no greater than 0.1 V/V. Use a 2mA current source for biasing.

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Two Active Loads for Differential Amplifiers: 1. Current mirror load 2. Lee load 1. The current mirror load: The current mirror load provides double-ended to single-ended conversion without suffering the loss of a factor of two in differential-mode gain (the common-mode gain is twice as large also, but still very small) .It is just another option to use the other collector node as well and defining the amplifier output as Vo2-Vo1. 2.) Differential mode: Assuming linear operation (and this is always assumed) the current increase of the left BJT is equal to the corresponding current reduction of the right BJT.The differential amplifier circuit using transistors can be designed as shown in the figure below which consists of two transistors T1 and T2. These transistors and resistors are connected as shown in the circuit diagram. Circuit using Transistors. There are two inputs I1 & I2 and two outputs V1out & V2out in the differential amplifier circuit.reach me now Are you seeking the best option to differentiate and amplify two input signals in an integrated circuit? If your answer is yes, then you need a BJT differential amplifier. No doubt, other devices—like an Op-Amp, can work. But this particular amplifier stands out. It uses identical transistors, supply rails, and a collector resistor.The d.c. analysis means to obtain the operating point values i.e. I Cq and V CEQ for the transistors used. The supply voltages are d.c. while the input signals are a.c., so d.c equivalent circuit can be obtained simply by reducing the input a.c. signals to zero. The d.c. equivalent circuit thus obtained is shown in the Fig..The differential amplifier circuit using transistors can be designed as shown in the figure below which consists of two transistors T1 and T2. These transistors and resistors are connected as shown in the circuit diagram. Circuit using Transistors. There are two inputs I1 & I2 and two outputs V1out & V2out in the differential amplifier circuit.Difference amplifiers should have no common-mode gain Note that each of these gains are open-circuit voltage gains. * An ideal differential amplifier has zero common-mode gain (i.e., A cm =0)! * In other words, the output of an ideal differential amplifier is independent of the common-mode (i.e., average) of the two input signals.A differential amplifier is a type of electronic amplifier that amplifies the difference between two input voltages but suppresses any voltage common to the two inputs. It is an analog circuit with two inputs and + and one output , in which the output is ideally proportional to the difference between the two voltages:Jul 24, 2016 · Differential Amplifier using BJT. The simplest form of differential amplifier can be constructed using Bipolar Junction Transistors as shown in the below circuit diagram. It is constructed using two matching transistors in common emitter configuration whose emitters are tied together. Differential Amplifier using Transistor – Circuit Diagram ….

A question about understanding a BJT differential amplifier? 1. In op-amp, how do they remove Quiescent votage (bias voltage of a bjt) from the output? 0. Differential amplifier and differential signals in small signal analyses. 1. Why is a Instrumentation Amplifier Necessary for A Wheatstone Bridge (small signal circuits) 0.The BJTs are the key here. Assuming they are matched (BCM62 or BCM61, for example), then an input differential between the …26 de fev. de 2012 ... Q1 and Q2 are an emitter-coupled differential pair. Q3 and Q4 are current sources, driven by the biasing current source Q5 and R1.Salah satu fungsi Transistor BJT (Bipolar Junction Transistor) adalah sebagai penguat sinyal baik sinyal dc maupun ac. Materi transistor sebagai penguat sinyal dc dapat dilihat pada materi transistor BJT sebagai saklar. Halaman ini membahas mengenai transistor yang digunakan sebagai amplifier atau penguat sinyal ac. Dalam mendesain transistor …The differential amplifier circuit using transistors can be designed as shown in the figure below which consists of two transistors T1 and T2. These transistors and resistors are connected as shown in the circuit diagram. Circuit using Transistors. There are two inputs I1 & I2 and two outputs V1out & V2out in the differential amplifier circuit.The differential amplifier circuit using transistors can be designed as shown in the figure below which consists of two transistors T1 and T2. These transistors and resistors are connected as shown in the circuit diagram. Circuit using Transistors. There are two inputs I1 & I2 and two outputs V1out & V2out in the differential amplifier circuit.Feb 9, 2021 · Differential Amplifier built using BJT. Considering the differential amplifier built using BJTs, if the input voltage V1 at transistor Q1 is sinusoidal, then as V1 goes on increasing, the transistor Q1 starts conduction which results in a large collector current in Q1 increasing the voltage drop across Rc1, causing a decrease in output voltage V01. The BJT differential AMP with an active. Many IC amplifiers use BJT loads in resistance, R . Higher load resistance, higher output gain. Left figure shows an AMP with active load …The input impedance can be increased using two techniques : • Using direct coupling (Darlington connection) • Using Bootstrap technique. 1. Darlington Transistors. Figure shows the direct coupling of two stages of emitter follower amplifier. This cascaded connection of two emitter followers is called the Darlington connection. Differential amplifier bjt, In today’s tutorial, we will have a look at BJT as an Amplifier. A transistor is an electronic component that has three terminals. Terminals are base-emitter, collector and base. It used in different electronic projects and circuits for switching and amplification process. Amplification is process through which weak input signal is amplified ..., 7: BJT Small Signal Amplifiers. Determine the voltage gain, input impedance and output impedance of simple BJT amplifiers. Detail the functional differences between voltage amplifiers and voltage followers. Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using localized feedback (swamping). Determine the combined …, Fully-Differential Amplifiers 5. 3 Voltage Definitions. To understand the behavior of a fully-differential amplifier, it is important to understand the voltage definitions used to describe the amplifier. Figure 3 shows a block diagram used to represent a fully-differential amplifier and its input and output voltage definitions., Feb 24, 2012 · A differential amplifier is an analog circuit with two inputs (V 1 and V 2) and one output (V 0) in which the output is ideally proportional to the difference between the two voltages. The formula for a simple differential amplifier can be expressed: Where V 0 is the output voltage V 1 and V 2 are the input voltages , Jun 6, 2021 · In short, a differential amplifier suppresses in phase signals while simultaneously boosting out of phase signals. This can be a very useful attribute, particularly in the area of noise reduction. Figure 7.5.9: Input-output waveforms for common mode. Figure 7.5.9: (continued) Input-output waveforms for common mode. , Calculation of the common-mode gain for a balanced and a single-output differential amplifier., In this video, the design and working of BJT- differential amplifier is explained. By watching this video, you will learn the following topics:0:00 Introduct..., Feb 25, 2016 · Tail Current로 인해 위 차동 증폭기는 Noise에 강한 증폭기가 됩니다. 여기에 쓰인 Current Source 및 MOSFET이 모두 ideal & Symmetric 하다면 이상적인 Differential Amplifier 즉 Noise가 제거된 증폭기가 되는 것입니다. 다음부터는 Differential Amplifier가 어떤식으로 동작하는지 한 단계 ... , The d.c. analysis means to obtain the operating point values i.e. I Cq and V CEQ for the transistors used. The supply voltages are d.c. while the input signals are a.c., so d.c equivalent circuit can be obtained simply by reducing the input a.c. signals to zero. The d.c. equivalent circuit thus obtained is shown in the Fig.., The differential pair is a differential amplifier—we express its performance in terms of differential and common-mode gains. HO: Small-Signal Analysis of the BJT Differential Pair V CC V EE R C I v O2 ()t v O1 ()t C Q 1Q 2 R v 2 v BE1 + − v BE2 i E1i E2 5/6/2011 Large Signal Operation of BJT diff pair 1/7 , The bipolar junction transistor (BJT)-pair emitter-coupled differential-amplifier circuit is a familiar amplifier stage in the repertoire of analog designers, but has an interesting complication. This article examines the emitter-circuit current source, I 0, of BJT diff-amps and the effects on amplifier gain of different implementations for it., A BJT Differential Amplifier is a circuit that consists of two bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) connected in a differential configuration. The primary function of this amplifier is to amplify the voltage difference between its two input signals. When the two input signals are applied to the bases of the BJTs, the transistors operate in the ..., Figure 3: BJT Differential amplifier. DC Solutions This solution assumes that I0 Q is known. If IQis known, the solutions are the same as above. (a) Zero both inputs. Divide the tail supply into two equal parallel current sources having a current I0 Q/2 in parallel with a resistor 2RQ. The circuit obtained for Q1 isshownontheleftin Fig. 4., Penguat Diferensial Menggunakan BJT. Differential Amplifier atau Penguat Diferensial adalah penguat atau amplifier yang menguatkan selisih dua tegangan input dimana penguatan ini mempunyai ciri-ciri : Memiliki dua terminal input dan satu terminal output, sehingga membutuhkan dua Bipolar Junction Transistor. Memiliki tegangan bias negatif pada ... , May 22, 2022 · Most modern operational amplifiers utilize a differential amplifier front end. In other words, the first stage of the operational amplifier is a differential amplifier. This circuit is commonly referred to as a diff amp or as a long-tailed pair. A diff amp utilizes a minimum of 2 active devices, although 4 or more may be used in more complex ... , Amplifier Circuit – The direct-coupled amplifier in Fig. 18-33 has a BJT Power Amplifier with Differential Input Stages constituted by transistors Q1 and Q2. It ..., This exercise examines differential amplifier implemented with BJTs. Equipment and components: 4 BJT transistors (2N3904); 1 Multi-turn potentiometer (1 kW); and resistors (values determined in lab); 15 V and -15 V power supply; function generator. Note: Analyze the circuit first, which includes hand calculations or computer simulation., A low gain differential amplifier is linear enough all by itself so that the outputs look "just like" the inputs, with no discernible distortion. If the input is a sine wave, the output should be a sine wave as well. R4 and R5 should be identical. The whole thing must be symmetric, otherwise it won't work well., Feb 25, 2016 · Tail Current로 인해 위 차동 증폭기는 Noise에 강한 증폭기가 됩니다. 여기에 쓰인 Current Source 및 MOSFET이 모두 ideal & Symmetric 하다면 이상적인 Differential Amplifier 즉 Noise가 제거된 증폭기가 되는 것입니다. 다음부터는 Differential Amplifier가 어떤식으로 동작하는지 한 단계 ... , BJT Amplifiers 6 CHAPTER OUTLINE 6–1 Amplifier Operation 6–2 Transistor AC Models 6–3 The Common-Emitter Amplifier 6–4 The Common-Collector Amplifier 6–5 The Common-Base Amplifier 6–6 Multistage Amplifiers 6–7 The Differential Amplifier 6–8 Troubleshooting Device Application CHAPTER OBJECTIVES Describe amplifier operation , Jan 27, 2021 · I'm currently studying the three modes of a BJT differential amplifier, and am struggling with some hypotheses the textbook makes. When examining single input and double input, the author uses a model like the one below, and goes on to an AC analysis of the circuit. simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab , Unlike normal amplifiers, which amplify a single input signal (often called single-ended amplifiers), differential amplifiers amplify the voltage difference between two input signals. Using the simplified triangle amplifier symbol, a differential amplifier looks like this: The two input leads can be seen on the left-hand side of the triangular ..., Learn how the easy BJT differential amplifier works, how items is constructed and select to do DC and SINGLE analyse. Learn how the basic BJT …, Wheatstone bridge excercise with Differential Amplifier: Homework Help: 3: Jul 7, 2023: Design of differential pair amplifier that is having maximum voltage gain with linearity and it should be biased by a current source while the biasing: Homework Help: 1: Jun 22, 2023: E: Differential Amplifier Analysis/Design: Homework Help: 10: Jun 7, 2020, Analysis and Design of BJT Differential Amplifier. Abstract: A differential amplifier is a basic building block for analog integrated circuit design; the operational amplifier integrated circuit has wide applications in signal processing. In this paper, a bipolar junction transistor BJT differential amplifier circuit is analyzed and designed to ..., Lecture 17. Differential Amplifiers – II Current Mirror Load and Single-Ended Output. In this lecture you will learn: Differential Amplifiers. Use of Current Mirrors in Differential …, Before you pursue a project that you believe is unique, entrepreneur Johnny Earle suggests writing down a list of ten ways in which what you're doing is different from your competition. Before you pursue a project that you believe is unique..., In today’s digital age, social media has become an essential tool for content creators looking to grow their channels. With billions of active users across various platforms, leveraging social media can significantly amplify your channel’s ..., reach me now Are you seeking the best option to differentiate and amplify two input signals in an integrated circuit? If your answer is yes, then you need a BJT differential amplifier. No doubt, other devices—like an Op-Amp, can work. But this particular amplifier stands out. It uses identical transistors, supply rails, and a collector resistor., Save. Terminals 1 and 2 are almost equally large (76,000 m2 & 66,000 m2). T1 serves both international & domestic flights, while T2 serves only international flights (RAM & some code-share). There are restaurants, fast food places and shops in both terminals. You can pay by card everywhere., In your amplifier, the Q1, Q2 as its name suggests working as a differential amplifier. And the job for this Diff amp is to amplify (only) the difference between the two its inputs. The Q1 transistor is "watching/monitors" the input signal and the Q2 transistor is "watching/monitors" the output signal feedback via the R5 resistor., Feedback amplifiers ForwardBlog Enewzletter 61.6K views•13 slides. Inverting amplifier hepzijustin 982 views•11 slides. Differential amplifier Arpit Raval 4K views•12 slides. 3.bipolar junction transistor (bjt) firozamin 104.4K views•44 slides. Power amplifiers Sarah Krystelle 38.5K views•32 slides. Pll ppt parassini 7.3K views•31 ..., The BJT di erential pair The circuit shown in Fig. 3, known as the BJT di erential pair, can be used to amplify only the di erential input signal Vid =(Vi1 Vi2) while rejecting the common-mode signal ViC = 1 2 (Vi1+ Vi2). The two resistors are assumed to be matched and so are the BJTs 2 Q 1 and Q2. Vo Vi 1 Vi2 Vc1 Vc2 VEE I0 VCC RC RC Q Q2 ...